FEM 3335 Good Governance and Sustainability. Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid, APPM Department of Social & Development Science Faculty of Human Ecology Universiti Putra Malaysia [email protected] Content. Sustainability and Good Governance
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Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid, APPM
Department of Social & Development Science
Faculty of Human Ecology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Definition of Governance
Definition of Good Governance
Concept and Elements of Good Governance
Characteristics of Good Governance
NOT equivalent to government
It involves multiple stakeholders in society (in multiple roles)
Members of community/groups with specific groups interest and concerns
Sectoral entities with sectoral interests and concerns
The whole society
Striking a BALANCE in attending to and providing for the needs and interests of its multiple stakeholders
SAFEGUARDING the interest of the WHOLE
STEERING SOCIETY TOWARDS A
SPECIFIC AGREED VISION OR GOAL
Governance can be seen as the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all level. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizen and groups articulate their rights and interests, exercise their legal means to meet their obligations and mediate their differences (UNDP)
The manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic
and social resources for development
The exercise of economic, political and
administrative authority to manage
a country’s affairs at all levels …
equitable, rule of law, with consensus
“Governance”- how power is shared and distributed to generate a better quality of life
Indigenous Content Development
Pressures for Change
And ICT Convergence
= Knowledge explosion
Not just representative but fully participatory affording opportunities for people to express their voice, opinion and make choices;
Must be dynamic and changing but the core values do not get diminished;
Must not be a separate entity but a continuum of the civil society;
Allows full participation, uphold visions and values of its peoples, translate them into policies and allocate resources to convert policy into reality;
Should be open and not closed;
Must be people friendly and human;
Uphold public interest
ANY GOVERNMENT WHICH HAS THE ABOVE CHARACTERISTICS CAN BE CONSIDERED AS PRACTICING GOOD GOVERNANCE.
Good Governance is among other things, participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable and it promotes the Rule of Law. Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voice of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision making over the allocation of development processes.
Rule of law
Effectiveness and efficiency
Refer : PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE.docx
Governance encompasses the state, but it transcends the state by including the private sector and civil society organizations. The private sector covers private enterprise (manufacturing, trade banking, cooperatives and so on) and the informal sector in the market place.
Civil society, lying between the individual and the state, comprises individuals and groups (organized or unorganized) interacting socially, politically and economically, regulated by formal and informal rules and laws.
2. The Element
Two Aspects To Governance
The formal structure within which the local governments operate, and
The ways in which local governments act in relation to the wider community
An essential element of good governance in the context of the ways in which local authorities relate to their communities is ‘inclusiveness
Implies a participatory and an inclusive approach to the community at large. It implies a bottom up approach to decision making, having all concerned people at every level of government and non governmental organizations.
A good governance system is a democratic system – it is participatory, transparent, accountable, equitable, and it promotes the rule of law. This implies the creation of an institutional framework recognizing the legitimacy the will of the people.
Governance is a process that has a goal
The governance process is based on PEOPLE via human networks or institutions (formal or informal)
How the human networks /institutions participate in or carry out the process of governance is how governance is usually assessed (i.e., ‘good’ vs ‘bad’ governance)
Governance is the exercise of authority and participation of citizen in policy making process. Governance fulfill the following 4 function:
Policy making and implementation;
Perform regulatory actions;
Produce goods and services;
Provide public access to goods and services
For Governance to be GOOD, the state must not only perform the above functions effectively but must ensure that citizens are able to participate in the decision making process.
Authority and influence based on positions of power within the hierarchy
Information flow limited and controllable (mostly 1 way communication)
Transparency on a need to know basis
M= The Marginalized
Sustaining and Improving Quality of Life
Preserving Rule of Law
Maintaining Order, Ensuring Social, Economic Justice
The WHOLE Greater Than the sum of its parts
Integrated and holistic
Premised upon knowledge and expertise as a source of authority and influence
Prioritizes communication & info-sharing transparency, shared accountability, mutual respect and trust
Leverages on partnership that focuses on better quality of life for all as the end of goal
Local Governance in Malaysia – Problems
Getting less attention and prominence
Supposed to work for people instead takes orders from higher authority
Failed to understand the problems, needs and aspirations of the local people.
Lack of authority and autonomy
Staff lack motivation and commitment to serve
Lack efficiency – red tapes and bureaucracy
Lack motivation where problem solving is based on ‘std’ procedure and little room for innovation
The old public management
bureacratic style, ineffective management
The new public management:
market-driven approach, effective management, social disappointments
new syntesis and maturity - aimed to reach sustainable growth and public sector efficiency, as well as citizens satisfaction and social welfare
Continuous processes -- planning-implementation-evaluation-feedback, etc.
technical process -- multi disciplinary actors
political decision making process -- multi stakeholders (public-private-community-mass media)
Political support & commitment
law & regulation
to do the right thing
External / global forces
borderless world, rapid changes, high uncertainty, etc.
Internal / local pressures
local needs, local culture, etc.
How to manage the institutional system => sustainable economically, socially, culturally, and environmentally
Local governance must change to keep pace with development and time
Local authority must be at par with others with the advancement of technology, local bureaucrats could not longer hide behind red tapes for the inefficiency and inability to deliver a certain standard of services to the people.
Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashidet al (2002) “Cities in the 21st Century : Urban Issues and Challenges”, Penerbit UPM
Patsy Healey et al (1995) “Managing Cities : The New Urban Context” John Wiley and Sons.