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FEM 3335 Good Governance and Sustainability. Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid, APPM Department of Social & Development Science Faculty of Human Ecology Universiti Putra Malaysia [email protected] Content. Sustainability and Good Governance

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fem 3335 good governance and sustainability
FEM 3335Good Governance and Sustainability

Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid, APPM

Department of Social & Development Science

Faculty of Human Ecology

Universiti Putra Malaysia

[email protected]

  • Sustainability and Good Governance
  • Characteristics of Good Governance
  • Innovative Management
  • Assessment Technique to Achieve Sustainability
  • Sustainable Planning Technique
sustainability and good governance
Sustainability and Good Governance
  • Sustainability cannot be achieved without good governance. The Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 stated that governance and sustainable development are intimately tied together and the future role of institutions, from local to international levels, will be crucial determinants to whether future policies and programs for sustainable development will succeed.
  • The traditional systems of regulations are being subjected to growing pressure for reform. All stakeholders including the government need to play a significant, if changed, role in the future. Sustainable development requires this change.
sustainability and good governance1
Sustainability and Good Governance
  • Such an intra- and intergenerational concept cannot be achieved with a top-down approach, but rather needs the participation of all. In fact, the governance of sustainable development requires the exploration of new forms of both social co-operation and confrontation. By doing so, the different levels (global and local), players (state, company and civil society), control structures (hierarchy, market and public-private) and fields of action need to be taken into consideration.
  • There is thus the need to examine the possibilities of integrating the environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development within the framework of governance processes and how that might steer societies towards sustainability.
the different levels of governance
The Different Levels of Governance
  • International level
  • National level
    • Government
    • Private sector
    • Civil society
  • Local level
  • Family level
  • New Challenge of the Century – The Changing Roles of the Government, Private Sectors, NGOs and the Community
what is meant by good governance
Definition of Governance

Definition of Good Governance

Concept and Elements of Good Governance

Characteristics of Good Governance

What is Meant by Good Governance?
what is governance

NOT equivalent to government

It involves multiple stakeholders in society (in multiple roles)


Members of community/groups with specific groups interest and concerns

Sectoral entities with sectoral interests and concerns

The whole society

What is Governance
governance is about
Striking a BALANCE in attending to and providing for the needs and interests of its multiple stakeholders

SAFEGUARDING the interest of the WHOLE

Governance is about…



what is meant by governance
Governance can be seen as the exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all level. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizen and groups articulate their rights and interests, exercise their legal means to meet their obligations and mediate their differences (UNDP)What is meant by Governance?
defining governance
The manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic

and social resources for development

World Bank

The exercise of economic, political and

administrative authority to manage

a country’s affairs at all levels …

equitable, rule of law, with consensus


key issues
“Governance”- how power is shared and distributed to generate a better quality of life

People Development

Equitable Access

Indigenous Content Development

Pressures for Change

Key issues
pressure for change
Pressure for Change

Information Revolution

And ICT Convergence

= Knowledge explosion





Rise of

Third Sector









what does a good government should be
Not just representative but fully participatory affording opportunities for people to express their voice, opinion and make choices;

Must be dynamic and changing but the core values do not get diminished;

Must not be a separate entity but a continuum of the civil society;

What does a good Government should be?
Allows full participation, uphold visions and values of its peoples, translate them into policies and allocate resources to convert policy into reality;

Should be open and not closed;

Must be people friendly and human;

Uphold public interest

what is good governance
Good Governance is among other things, participatory, transparent and accountable. It is also effective and equitable and it promotes the Rule of Law. Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voice of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision making over the allocation of development processes.What is Good Governance?
nine characteristics principles of good governance

Rule of law



Consensus orientation


Effectiveness and efficiency


Strategic vision


Nine Characteristics/Principles of Good Governance
the concept and element of good governance
The Concept

Governance encompasses the state, but it transcends the state by including the private sector and civil society organizations. The private sector covers private enterprise (manufacturing, trade banking, cooperatives and so on) and the informal sector in the market place.

Civil society, lying between the individual and the state, comprises individuals and groups (organized or unorganized) interacting socially, politically and economically, regulated by formal and informal rules and laws.

The Concept and Element of Good Governance

The Concept of Good Governance normally encompasses a large range of concerns, including the effectiveness of institutional arrangements, decision making processes, policy formulation, implementation capacity, information flows, and the nature of the relationship between rulers and the ruled. It involves a comprehensive view of the government decision making process.

2. The Element

Two Aspects To Governance

The formal structure within which the local governments operate, and

The ways in which local governments act in relation to the wider community

An essential element of good governance in the context of the ways in which local authorities relate to their communities is ‘inclusiveness

good governance
Implies a participatory and an inclusive approach to the community at large. It implies a bottom up approach to decision making, having all concerned people at every level of government and non governmental organizations.

A good governance system is a democratic system – it is participatory, transparent, accountable, equitable, and it promotes the rule of law. This implies the creation of an institutional framework recognizing the legitimacy the will of the people.

Good Governance
assessing governance
Governance is a process that has a goal

The governance process is based on PEOPLE via human networks or institutions (formal or informal)

How the human networks /institutions participate in or carry out the process of governance is how governance is usually assessed (i.e., ‘good’ vs ‘bad’ governance)

Assessing Governance
good versus bad governance
Governance is the exercise of authority and participation of citizen in policy making process. Governance fulfill the following 4 function:

Policy making and implementation;

Perform regulatory actions;

Produce goods and services;

Provide public access to goods and services

For Governance to be GOOD, the state must not only perform the above functions effectively but must ensure that citizens are able to participate in the decision making process.

traditional approach to governance

Government leads

Hierarchical model

Centralized decision-making

Top-down processes

Authority and influence based on positions of power within the hierarchy

Information flow limited and controllable (mostly 1 way communication)

Transparency on a need to know basis

Traditional Approach to Governance





a smart partnership based governance approach
A Smart-Partnership-based Governance Approach

M= The Marginalized

Governance Process


Sustaining and Improving Quality of Life




Preserving Rule of Law

Maintaining Order, Ensuring Social, Economic Justice


Creating Value

The WHOLE Greater Than the sum of its parts


ideal characteristics of the alternative approach
Integrated and holistic

Premised upon knowledge and expertise as a source of authority and influence

Prioritizes communication & info-sharing transparency, shared accountability, mutual respect and trust

Leverages on partnership that focuses on better quality of life for all as the end of goal

Ideal characteristics of the alternative approach
how to best handle the process of opening up to ensure justice for all
Local Governance in Malaysia – Problems

Getting less attention and prominence

Supposed to work for people instead takes orders from higher authority

Failed to understand the problems, needs and aspirations of the local people.

How to best handle the process of ‘opening-up’ to ensure justice for all
problems encountered by local government
Lack of authority and autonomy

Staff lack motivation and commitment to serve

Lack efficiency – red tapes and bureaucracy

Lack motivation where problem solving is based on ‘std’ procedure and little room for innovation

Problems encountered by Local Government
public m anagement e volutions and c hanges
The old public management

bureacratic style, ineffective management

The new public management:

market-driven approach, effective management, social disappointments

Good governance

new syntesis and maturity - aimed to reach sustainable growth and public sector efficiency, as well as citizens satisfaction and social welfare

Public Management: Evolutions and Changes
urban management the process of good governance
Continuous processes -- planning-implementation-evaluation-feedback, etc.

technical process -- multi disciplinary actors

political decision making process -- multi stakeholders (public-private-community-mass media)

Participation-transparency-equity-accountability, etc.

Urban Management -the process of good governance
urban management the input institutions
Political support & commitment

public-private-community participation

Supporting resources

law & regulation


human resources



to do the right thing

Urban Management : the input -- institutions
urban management the forces globalization
External / global forces

borderless world, rapid changes, high uncertainty, etc.

Internal / local pressures

local needs, local culture, etc.

Urban Management the forces -- globalization
um to reach sustainability the institutional system
How to manage the institutional system => sustainable economically, socially, culturally, and environmentally



human resources


UM to Reach Sustainability:the institutional system
Local governance must change to keep pace with development and time

Local authority must be at par with others with the advancement of technology, local bureaucrats could not longer hide behind red tapes for the inefficiency and inability to deliver a certain standard of services to the people.

  • Today, there is almost full concensus among social stakeholders:modern public management requires implementation of good governance principles.
  • Good goivernance is a policy approach aimed to increase public sector efficiency and citizens satisfaction from having responsible and commited government.
  • Good governance in global context: require learning and sharing knowledge and practices among scientists, policymakers, practitioners, NGOs from many countries.
  • What do you think good governance is when you hear that expression in everyday life?
  • Compare and contrast on the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional and new approach to governance.
Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashidet al (2002) “Cities in the 21st Century : Urban Issues and Challenges”, Penerbit UPM

Patsy Healey et al (1995) “Managing Cities : The New Urban Context” John Wiley and Sons.



http://www.hcmripa.gov.in/ggovern.html 47