Chpt 5 gases
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Chpt 5 - Gases. Gas Law Development Dalton’s Partial pressure law Graham’s effusion Kinetic Theory Root-mean-square velocity van der Waals equation of state HW: Chpt 5 - pg 119-128, #s 5, 22, 23, 25, 31, 32, 35, 39, 41, 46, 55, 64, 66, 71, 75, 77, 81, 91, 95, 97, 101, 124 Due Mon 9/28.

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Chpt 5 - Gases

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Chpt 5 gases

Chpt 5 - Gases

  • Gas Law Development

  • Dalton’s Partial pressure law

  • Graham’s effusion

  • Kinetic Theory

    • Root-mean-square velocity

  • van der Waals equation of state

  • HW: Chpt 5 - pg 119-128, #s 5, 22, 23, 25, 31, 32, 35, 39, 41, 46, 55, 64, 66, 71, 75, 77, 81, 91, 95, 97, 101, 124 Due Mon 9/28


Torricelli barometer

Torricelli barometer

Pressure is? Units?

The height in mm of mercury

above the surface of the resevoir

of mercury determines the pressure.

The units are mmHg.

mmHg is also the same unit as

Torr. i.e. standard pressure is 760 mmHg and 760 Torr


Simple manometer

Simple Manometer

Similar to the barometer,

the height difference of the Hg relates the pressure difference in the unknown gas bulb side to the current atmospheric pressure.

The higher Hg side has the _____ pressure.

(higher/lower)


Boyle s law

Boyle’s Law

  • Constant temperature experiments demonstrated the PV=constant graphing this yields an inverse relationship

  • Thus if the pressure of volume changes at a constant temperature

    P1V1 = P2V2


Charles s law

Charles’s Law

  • Constant pressure experiments demonstrated that Volume is directly proportional to Temperature (Kelvin)

    V1 = V2

    T1 T2

  • Several gases were used & all extrapolate to zero volume and the same temperature at negative 273oC


Plots of v vs t c

Plots of V vs. T(ºC)

Charles’s Law

Experiment results


Combined gas law

Combined Gas Law

P1V1 = P2V2

T1T2

Avogadro’s Law - equal volumes of gas contain equal particles of gas

V = k n

At constant temperature and pressure the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.


Ideal gas law

Ideal Gas Law

  • Putting it all together, we can calculate that constant now. The universal gas constant R.

    PV=R or PV=nRT

    nTR =0.0821 l*atm/mol*K

    =8.31 l*kpa/mol*K


Effusion of gas into evacuated chamber

Effusion of Gas into Evacuated Chamber

If more than one type of gas or more than one isotope, which gas effuses faster?

Lighter gas moves

Faster!!

KE = 1/2 mv2


Relative molecular speed distribution of h 2 and uf 6

Relative Molecular Speed Distribution of H2 and UF6


Diffusion rates of nh 3 and hcl molecules through air

Diffusion Rates of NH3and HCl Molecules Through Air


Plots of pv nrt vs p for several gases

Plots of PV/nRT vs. P for Several Gases


Plot of pv nrt vs p for n 2 gas

Plot of PV/nRT vs. P for N2 Gas


Plot of pv vs p for several gases

Plot of PV vs. P for Several Gases


Values of the van der waals constants for common gases

Values of the van der Waals Constants for Common Gases


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