Alkalinity
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Alkalinity. Bicarbonate-carbonate. Alkalinity is…. …the measure of the ability of a water to neutralize an acid. Acidity. Most natural waters are buffered as a result of a carbon dioxide(air)-bicarbonate (limestone – CaCO 3 ) buffer system. What is a buffer?. Buffer.

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Alkalinity

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Alkalinity

Alkalinity

Bicarbonate-carbonate


Alkalinity is

Alkalinity is…

…the measure of the ability of a water to neutralize an acid.


Acidity

Acidity

Most natural waters are buffered as a result of a carbon dioxide(air)-bicarbonate (limestone – CaCO3) buffer system.

What is a buffer?


Buffer

Buffer

Mixture of an acid (or base) and its conjugate base (or acid)

Think of chemical equilibrium as a see-saw:

CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3

H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+

HCO3-↔ CO32- + H+

CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+ ↔ CO32- + 2 H+

You need to put 2 fat kids on the see-saw!


Buffer1

CO2

CO32-

Buffer

CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H+ ↔ CO32- + 2 H+

If you have a big heavy weight at both ends of the equilibrium, a small addition of acid or base from an outside source can’t change the pH very much.


Reporting alkalinity

Reporting Alkalinity

Alkalinity can be reported in several ways – ways which are not completely chemically accurate.

Alkalinity as mg/L CaCO3

= ml titrant * Normality of acid * 50,000

mL sample


What s normality

What’s Normality?

Normality is like Molarity with the stoichiometry added right in.

Normality (N) = equivalent moles of solute

L

What’s “equivalent” mean? It means you consider the reaction.


1 5 m hcl

1.5 M HCl

1.5 M HCl

What’s HCl?

It’s an acid. What’s the relevant part of the acid?

H+

HCl + OH- H2O + Cl-


1 5 m hcl1

1.5 M HCl

1.5 M HCl

Since 1 HCl reacts with 1 OH-, there is one chemical equivalent per molecule.

1.5 mole HCl * 1 H+ equivalent = 1.5 N HCl

L 1 HCl

HCl + OH- H2O + Cl-


1 5 m h 2 so 4

1.5 M H2SO4

1.5 M H2SO4

What’s H2SO4?

It’s an acid. What’s the relevant part of the acid?

H+

H2SO4 + 2 OH- 2 H2O + SO42-


1 5 m h 2 so 41

1.5 M H2SO4

1.5 M H2SO4

Since 1 H2SO4 reacts with 2 OH-, there are TWO chemical equivalents per molecule.

1.5 mole H2SO4 * 2 H+ equivalent = 3.0 N H2SO4

L 1 H2SO4

H2SO4 + 2 OH- 2 H2O + SO42-


Moles moles moles

Moles! Moles! Moles!

I titrate 50.00 mL of calcium carbonate solution using a 1.5 M H2SO4 solution. Equivalence (2nd endpoint) is reached after addition of 32.65 mL of acid. What is the concentration of calcium carbonate in the original sample in mg/L?


Alkalinity

1st thing we need?

Balanced Equation

CO32- + 2 H+ H2CO3

OR

CO32- + H+ HCO3-

HCO3- + H+ H2CO3


Moles moles moles1

Moles! Moles! Moles!

1.5 moles H2SO4 * 0.03265 L = 0.048975 mol H2SO4

1 L

0.048975 mol H2SO4 * 2 mol H+= 0.09795 mol H+

1 mol H2SO4

0.09795 mol H+ * 1 mol CO32-= 0.048975 mol CO32-

2 mol H+

0.048975 mol CO32- 1 mol CaCO3= 0.048975 mol CaCO3

1 mol CO32-

0.048975 mol CaCO3* 100.09 g * 1000 mg = 98039 mg/L

0.050 L 1 mol CaCO3 1 g


Equivalents equivalents equivalents

Equivalents! Equivalents! Equivalents!

3 equivalents H2SO4 * 0.03265 L = 0.09795 eq H2SO4

1 L

0.09795 eq H2SO4 * = 0.09795 mol H+

0.09795 mol H+ * 1 mol CO32-= 0.048975 mol CO32-

2 mol H+

0.048975 mol CO32- * 100.09 g * 1000 mg = 98039 mg/L

0.050 L 1 mol CO32- 1 g


Alkalinity

Alkalinity as mg/L CaCO3

= ml titrant * Normality of acid * 50,000

mL sample

= 32.65 mL * 3.0 N H2SO4 * 50,000

50 mL

=97950 mg/L

The expression in the book (or lab) is just the Moles! Moles! Moles! solved for you.


A base is a base is a base

A base is a base is a base

If you titrate a solution with multiple bases, can you tell what reacts with what?

Essentially, you have 3 different bases in the system:

OH-, CO32-, and HCO3-

All 3 can be neutralized by addition of a strong acid.


Alkalinity

H+ + OH- H2O (neutral)

H+ + CO32- HCO3-

HCO3- + H+ H2CO3

(slightly basic) (acidic)

HCO3- + H+ H2CO3

(acidic)


Alkalinity

H+ + OH- H2O (neutral – EP1)

H+ + CO32- HCO3-

HCO3- + H+ H2CO3

(slightly basic – EP1) (acidic – EP2)

HCO3- + H+ H2CO3

(acidic – EP2)


Alkalinity

OH- is a strong base.

HCO3- is a weak acid

If I have more OH- than HCO3-, it completely neutralizes it and I just have OH-

If I have more HCO3- than OH-, then it partially neutralizes it and I detect only HCO3-


Example

Example

I titrate a 25.00 mL water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 27.6 mL of HCl.

What can I conclude?


Example1

Example

I titrate a 25.00 mL water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 27.6 mL of HCl.

What can I conclude?

Carbonate and bicarbonate are both present.

How much?

0.1250 M HCl * 0.0225 L HCl = 2.813x10-3 mol HCl

2.813x10-3 moles CO32-

0.1250 M HCl * (0.0276 – 0.0225 L HCl) = 6.375x10-4 H+

6.375x10-4 moles HCO3-


Units units units

Units! Units! Units!

Carbonate and bicarbonate are usually measured as “mg equivalent CaCO3/L”

So…

0.1250 M HCl * 0.0225 L HCl = 2.813x10-3 mole H+

2.813x10-3 mole H+ * 1 mol CO32-

1 mol H+=2.813x10-3 moles CO32-

2.813x10-3 moles CO32- * 1 mol CaCO3

1 mol CO32-

2.813x10-3 mol CaCO3*100.08 g =0.2815 g

mol CaCO3

0.2815 g CaCO3 * 1000 mg = 281.5 mg CaCO3

1 g

281.5 mg CaCO3 = 11,259 mg CaCO3/L

0.025 L


What about the hco 3

What about the HCO3-?

CO32- + 2 H+ = H2CO3

HCO3- + H+ = H2CO3

0.1250 M HCl * (0.0276 – 0.0225 L HCl) = 6.375x10-4 moles HCl 6.375x10-4 moles HCl * 1 mol CO3-2 = 3.1875x10-4 moles CO32-

2 mol H+

3.1875x10-4 moles CO32- *100.08 g =0.031901 g

mol CaCO3

0.031901 g CaCO3 * 1000 mg = 31.90 mg CaCO3

1 g

31.90 mg CaCO3 = 1276.0 mg CaCO3/L

0.025 L


Total alkalinity

Total Alkalinity.

I titrate a 25.00 mL water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 27.6 mL of HCl. What is the total alkalinity?

Assume the second endpoint is reached and it was all CaCO3 in the sample.

22.5 mL + 27.6 mL = 50.1 mL total HCl

0.1250 M HCl * 0.0501 L = 6.2625x10-3 mol HCl

6.2625x10-3 mol H+ *1 mol CaCO3 * 100.08 g * 1000 mg=313.38 mg CaCO3

2 mol HCl mol 1 g

313.38 mg CaCO3 = 12,535 mg CaCO3/L

0.025 L


Notice

Notice…

Total alkalinity = 12,535 mg CaCO3/L

Carbonate alkalinity = 11, 260 mg CaCO3/L

Bicarbonate alkalinity = 1276 mg/L

11,260 + 1276 = 12536 mg CaCO3/L!!!!


Example2

Example

I titrate a water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 27.6 mL of HCl.

What can I conclude?

Carbonate and bicarbonate are both present.

Is this really true?


Example3

Example

I titrate a water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 27.6 mL of HCl.

Carbonate and bicarbonate are both present.

Is this really true?

No – any chemical species that behaves like carbonate or like bicarbonate will look identical!!!!!!!


Alkalinity

To be totally accurate, I should quote the levels as:

“Bicarbonate and chemical equivalents”

“Carbonate and chemical equivalents”


Example4

Example

I titrate a 50.00 mL water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 19.6 mL of HCl. What is the total alkalinity in mg CaCO3/L?

What can I conclude about the species present?


Example5

Example

I titrate a 50.00 mL water sample with 0.1250 M HCl. I achieve the first endpoint at 22.5 mL of HCl and the second after addition of another 19.6 mL of HCl. What is the total alkalinity in mg CaCO3/L?

What can I conclude?

Carbonate and OH- are both present.

BUT if I only care about total alkalinity I just ASSUME it is all CaCO3!!!!


Total alkalinity1

Total alkalinity:

22.5 mL + 19.6 mL = 42.1 mL

0.1250 M * 0.0421 L = 5.2625x10-3 mol H+

5.2625x10-3 mol H+ * 1 mol CaCO3 = 2.6313x10-3 mol CaCO3

2 mol H+

2.6313x10-3 mol * 100.08 g * 1000 mg = 263.34 mg CaCO3

mol CaCO3 1 g

263.34 mg CaCO3 = 5267 mg CaCO3/L

0.050 L


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