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THE LATIN VERB. The dictionary entry for a verb will give you the following information: - I -form of Present tense - Infinitive (from which the other forms of the Present and also the Imperfect and Future are formed)

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THE LATIN VERB

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THE LATIN VERB

The dictionary entry for a verb will give you the following information:

- I-form of Present tense

- Infinitive (from which the other forms of the Present and also the Imperfect and Future are formed)

- I-form of Perfect (from which the other forms of the Perfect, the Past Perfect and the Future Perfect are formed)

- Perfect Participle (from which the Passive Perfect, Past Perfect and Future Perfect are formed)


EXAMPLES OF DICTIONARY ENTRIES

amō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

moneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

videō -ērevīdī visumsee

vincō -erevīcī victumconquer

audiō-īre-īvī -ītumhear, listen

capiō -erecēpīcaptumcapture

Notice that to save space, some dictionaries do not repeat the letters before the ending if they do not change in the other parts of the verb.


PRESENT TENSE

  • The endings in nearly all verbs are:

    • ō/m (I)

    • s (you –singular)

    • t (he/she/it)

    • mus(we)

    • tis(you –plural)

    • nt(they)

  • The endings are normally linked to the verb by the signature vowel for each conjugation


These endings survive in modern Italian, but with changes

  • The Italian endings are:

    • o

    • i

    • a or e

    • iamo

    • ateor eteor ite

    • ono


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -are

amō


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -are

amō

amās


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amō

amās

amat


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amō

amās

amat

amāmus


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amō

amās

amat

amāmus

amātis


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amō

amās

amat

amāmus

amātis

amant


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

moneō


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

moneō

monēs


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

moneō

monēs

monet


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

moneō

monēs

monet

monēmus


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

moneōmonēs

monet

monēmus

monētis


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

moneōmonēs

monet

monēmus

monētis

monent


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ere

regō


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ere

regōregis


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ere

regōregis

regit


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ere

regōregis

regit

regimus


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ere

regōregis

regit

regimus

regitis


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ere

regōregis

regit

regimus

regitis

regunt


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -īre

audiō


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -īre

audiōaudīs


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -īre

audiōaudīs

audit


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -īre

audiōaudīs

audit

audīmus


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -īre

audiōaudīs

audit

audīmus

audītis


Present Tense - verbs with infinitive in -īre

audiōaudīs

audit

audīmus

audītis

audiunt


Present Tense - verbs with I-form in –iō and infinitive in -ere

capiō


Present Tense - verbs with I-form in –iō and infinitive in -ere

capiōcapis


Present Tense - verbs with I-form in –iō and infinitive in -ere

capiōcapis

capit


Present Tense - verbs with I-form in –iō and infinitive in -ere

capiōcapis

capit

capimus


Present Tense - verbs with I-form in –iō and infinitive in -ere

capiōcapis

capit

capimus

capitis


Present Tense - verbs with I-form in –iō and infinitive in -ere

capiōcapis

capit

capimus

capitis

capiunt


PRESENT TENSE OFesse (to be)

sum


PRESENT TENSE OFesse (to be)

sum

es


PRESENT TENSE OFesse (to be)

sum

es

est


PRESENT TENSE OFesse (to be)

sum

es

est

sumus


PRESENT TENSE OFesse (to be)

sum

es

est

sumus

estis


PRESENT TENSE OFesse (to be)

sum

es

est

sumus

estis

sunt


Imperfect Tense

Verbs in –āre:

ābam - ābās –ābat –ābāmus - ābātis -ābant

Verbs in –ēre and most verbs in –ere:

-ēbam - ēbās –ēbat –ēbāmus - ēbātis - ēbant

Verbs with –iō ending for I-form in Present (including all with infinitive in –īre and a few

with infinitive in –ere)

-iēbam - iēbās –iēbat –iēbāmus - iēbātis - iēbant

The verbesse has the forms

eram erās erat erāmus erātis erant


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābam


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābam

amābās


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābam

amābās

amābat


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābam

amābās

amābat

amābāmus


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābam

amābās

amābat

amābāmus

amābātis


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābam

amābās

amābat

amābāmus

amābātis

amābant


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbam


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in - ēre

monēbam

monēbās


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in - ēre

monēbam

monēbās

monēbat


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in - ēre

monēbam

monēbās

monēbat

monēbāmus


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in - ēre

monēbam

monēbās

monēbat

monēbāmus

monēbātis


Imperfect Tense - verbs with infinitive in - ēre

monēbam

monēbās

monēbat

monēbāmus

monēbātis

monēbant


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regēbam


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regēbam

regēbās


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regēbam

regēbās

regēbat


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regēbam

regēbās

regēbat

regēbāmus


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regēbam

regēbās

regēbat

regēbāmus

regēbātis


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regēbam

regēbās

regēbat

regēbāmus

regēbātis

regēbant


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –iō

capiēbam


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –iō

capiēbam

capiēbās


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –iō

capiēbam

capiēbās

capiēbat


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –iō

capiēbam

capiēbās

capiēbat

capiēbāmus


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –iō

capiēbam

capiēbās

capiēbat

capiēbāmus

capiēbātis


Imperfect Tense - verbs in –iō

capiēbam

capiēbās

capiēbat

capiēbāmus

capiēbātis

capiēbant


Imperfect Tense – the verb esse

eram


Imperfect Tense – the verb esse

eram

erās


Imperfect Tense – the verb esse

eram

erās

erat


Imperfect Tense – the verb esse

eram

erās

erat

erāmus


Imperfect Tense – the verb esse

eram

erās

erat

erāmus

erātis


Imperfect Tense – the verb esse

eram

erās

erat

erāmus

erātis

erant


Future Tense

Verbs in –āre and –ēre use signature vowel plus `b’:

ā/ēbō - ā/ēbis –ā/ēbit –ā/ēbimus - ā/ēbitis -ā/ēbunt

Verbs in –ere and -īre add different endings. If they have the ending `-io’ in the present tense (as in the 4th and `3.5th’ group) there is an `i’ before each future ending)

-(i)am - (i)ēs –(i)et –(i)ēmus - (i)ētis - (i)ent

The verbesse has the forms

erōeris erit erimus eritis erunt


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābō


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābō

amābis


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābō

amābis

amābit


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābō

amābis

amābit

amābimus


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābō

amābis

amābit

amābimus

amābitis


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -āre

amābō

amābis

amābit

amābimus

amābitis

amābunt


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbō


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbō

monēbis


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbō

monēbis

monēbit


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbō

monēbis

monēbit

monēbimus


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbō

monēbis

monēbit

monēbimus

monēbitis


Future Tense - verbs with infinitive in -ēre

monēbō

monēbis

monēbit

monēbimus

monēbitis

monēbunt


Future Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regam


Future Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regam

regēs


Future Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regam

regēs

reget


Future Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regam

regēs

reget

regēmus


Future Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regam

regēs

reget

regēmus

regētis


Future Tense - verbs in –ō and -ere

regam

regēs

reget

regēmus

regētis

regent


Future Tense - verbs in –iō

capiam


Future Tense - verbs in –iō

capiam

capiēs


Future Tense - verbs in –iō

capiam

capiēs

capiet


Future Tense - verbs in –iō

capiam

capiēs

capiet

capiēmus


Future Tense - verbs in –iō

capiam

capiēs

capiet

capiēmus

capiētis


Future Tense - verbs in –iō

capiam

capiēs

capiet

capiēmus

capiētis

capient


Future Tense – the verb esse

erō


Future Tense – the verb esse

erō

eris


Future Tense – the verb esse

erō

eris

erit


Future Tense – the verb esse

erō

eris

erit

erimus


Future Tense – the verb esse

erō

eris

erit

erimus

eritis


Future Tense – the verb esse

erō

eris

erit

erimus

eritis

erunt


PERFECT TENSE

Formed by the perfect base (seen in the second part of the verb in a dictionary) and the endings:

-ī-imus

-istī-istis

-it-ērunt


PERFECT OFamō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

amāvī


PERFECT OFamō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

amāvī

amāvistī


PERFECT OFamō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

amāvī

amāvistī

amāvit


PERFECT OFamō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

amāvī

amāvistī

amāvit

amāvimus


PERFECT OFamō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

amāvī

amāvistī

amāvit

amāvimus

amāvistis


PERFECT OFamō-āre-āvī-ātumlove

amāvī

amāvistī

amāvit

amāvimus

amāvistis

amāvērunt


PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuī


PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuī

monuistī


PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuī

monuistī

monuit


PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuī

monuistī

monuit

monuimus


PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuī

monuistī

monuit

monuimus

monuistis


PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuī

monuistī

monuit

monuimus

monuistis

monuērunt


PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcī


PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcī

vīcistī


PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcī

vīcistī

vīcit


PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcī

vīcistī

vīcit

vīcimus


PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcī

vīcistī

vīcit

vīcimus

vīcistis


PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcī

vīcistī

vīcit

vīcimus

vīcistis

vīcērunt


PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīvī


PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīvī

audīvistī


PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīvī

audīvistī

audīvit


PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīvī

audīvistī

audīvit

audīvimus


PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīvī

audīvistī

audīvit

audīvimus

audīvistis


PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīvī

audīvistī

audīvit

audīvimus

audīvistis

audīvērunt


PERFECT OFsumessefuībe

fuī


PERFECT OFsumessefuībe

fuī

fuistī


PERFECT OFsumessefuībe

fuī

fuistī

fuit


PERFECT OFsumessefuībe

fuī

fuistī

fuit

fuimus


PERFECT OFsumessefuībe

fuī

fuistī

fuit

fuimus

fuistis


PERFECT OFsumessefuībe

fuī

fuistī

fuit

fuimus

fuistis

fuērunt


PLUPERFECTFormed by adding the Imperfect of esse to the Perfect Base

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāveram


PAST PERFECTFormed by adding the Imperfect of esse to the Perfect Base

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāveram

amāverās


PAST PERFECTFormed by adding the Imperfect of esse to the Perfect Base

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāveram

amāverās

amāverat


PAST PERFECTFormed by adding the Imperfect of esse to the Perfect Base

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāveram

amāverās

amāverat

amāverāmus


PAST PERFECTFormed by adding the Imperfect of esse to the Perfect Base

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāveram

amāverās

amāverat

amāverāmus

amāverātis


PAST PERFECTFormed by adding the Imperfect of esse to the Perfect Base

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāveram

amāverās

amāverat

amāverāmus

amāverātis

amāverant


PAST PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monueram


PAST PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -ītumwarn

monueram

monuerās


PAST PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monueram

monuerās

monuerat


PAST PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monueram

monuerās

monuerat

monuerāmus


PAST PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monueram

monuerās

monuerat

monuerāmus

monuerātis


PAST PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monueram

monuerās

monuerat

monuerāmus

monuerātis

monuerant


PAST PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīceram


PAST PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīceram

vīcerās


PAST PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīceram

vīcerās

vīcerat


PAST PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīceram

vīcerās

vīcerat

vīcerāmus


PAST PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīceram

vīcerās

vīcerat

vīcerāmus

vīcerātis


PAST PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīceram

vīcerās

vīcerat

vīcerāmus

vīcerātis

vīcerant


PAST PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīveram


PAST PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīveram

audīverās


PAST PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīveram

audīverās

audīverat


PAST PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīveram

audīverās

audīverat

audīverāmus


PAST PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīveram

audīverās

audīverat

audīverāmus

audīverātis


PAST PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīveram

audīverās

audīverat

audīverāmus

audīverātis

audīverant


PAST PERFECT OFsumesse fuībe

fueram


PAST PERFECT OFsumesse fuībe

fueram

fuerās


PAST PERFECT OFsumesse fuībe

fueram

fuerās

fuerat


PAST PERFECT OFsumesse fuībe

fueram

fuerās

fuerat

fuerāmus


PAST PERFECT OFsumesse fuībe

fueram

fuerās

fuerat

fuerāmus

fuerātis


PAST PERFECT OFsumesse fuībe

fueram

fuerās

fuerat

fuerāmus

fuerātis

fuerant


FUTURE PERFECTFormed by adding the Future of esse to the Perfect Base – erunt changes to erint

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāverō


FUTURE PERFECTFormed by adding the Future of esse to the Perfect Base – erunt changes to erint

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāverō

amāveris


FUTURE PERFECTFormed by adding the Future of esse to the Perfect Base – erunt changes to erint

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāverō

amāveris

amāverit


FUTURE PERFECTFormed by adding the Future of esse to the Perfect Base – erunt changes to erint

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāverō

amāveris

amāverit

amāverimus


FUTURE PERFECTFormed by adding the Future of esse to the Perfect Base – erunt changes to erint

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāverō

amāveris

amāverit

amāverimus

amāveritis


FUTURE PERFECTFormed by adding the Future of esse to the Perfect Base – erunt changes to erint

amō-āre-āvi-ātumlove

amāverō

amāveris

amāverit

amāverimus

amāveritis

amāverint


FUTURE PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuerō


FUTURE PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuerō

monueris


FUTURE PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuerō

monueris

monuerit


FUTURE PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuerō

monueris

monuerit

monuerimus


FUTURE PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuerō

monueris

monuerit

monuerimus

monueritis


FUTURE PERFECT OFmoneō -ēre-uī -itumwarn

monuerō

monueris

monuerit

monuerimus

monueritis

monuerint


FUTURE PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcerō


FUTURE PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcerō

vīceris


FUTURE PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcerō

vīceris

vīcerit


FUTURE PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcerō

vīceris

vīcerit

vīcerimus


FUTURE PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcerō

vīceris

vīcerit

vīcerimus

vīceritis

vīcerint


FUTURE PERFECT OFvincō -erevīcīvictumconquer

vīcerō

vīceris

vīcerit

vīcerimus

vīceritis

vīcerint


FUTURE PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīverō


FUTURE PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīverō

audīveris


FUTURE PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīverō

audīveris

audīverit


FUTURE PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīverō

audīveris

audīverit

audīverimus


FUTURE PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīverō

audīveris

audīverit

audīverimus

audīveritis


FUTURE PERFECT OFaudiō -īre-īvī -ītum hear

audīverō

audīveris

audīverit

audīverimus

audīveritis

audīverint


FUTURE PERFECT OFsum esse fuībe

fuerō


FUTURE PERFECT OFsum esse fuībe

fuerō

fueris


FUTURE PERFECT OFsum esse fuībe

fuerō

fueris

fuerit


FUTURE PERFECT OFsum esse fuībe

fuerō

fueris

fuerit

fuerimus


FUTURE PERFECT OFsum esse fuībe

fuerō

fueris

fuerit

fuerimus

fueritis


FUTURE PERFECT OFsum esse fuībe

fuerō

fueris

fuerit

fuerimus

fueritis

fuerint


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