Diver first responder dfr module c diving emergencies 2 non dci
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Diver First Responder (DFR) Module C: Diving Emergencies 2 Non-DCI PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Diver First Responder (DFR) Module C: Diving Emergencies 2 Non-DCI. DFR Course. In Module C: we will Cover. Non-Pressure Related Emergencies Dive Site Accident Management Gas toxicity Near drowning Minor barotrauma Good diving practise. Common Terminology. Dive Site Accident Management.

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Diver First Responder (DFR) Module C: Diving Emergencies 2 Non-DCI

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Diver first responder dfr module c diving emergencies 2 non dci

Diver First Responder (DFR)Module C: Diving Emergencies 2Non-DCI


Dfr course

DFR Course


In module c we will cover

In Module C: we will Cover

  • Non-Pressure Related Emergencies

    • Dive Site Accident Management

    • Gas toxicity

    • Near drowning

    • Minor barotrauma

    • Good diving practise


Common terminology

Common Terminology


Dive site accident management

Dive SiteAccident Management


Dive site accident management1

Dive Site Accident Management

  • Be aware of all symptoms

  • An unwell diver should exit the water

  • Presume illness is dive-related

  • Have 02 and emergency kit to hand

  • Alert Emergency Medical Services (EMS)

    • Dial 999 or 112 or VHF Channel 16


Treatment of the injured or ill diver

Treatment of the Injured or Ill Diver

  • Get diver back on boat or ashore

  • If altered consciousness on surfacing, ensure jacket inflated & weights removed

  • Loosen tight clothing

  • History / examination – Symptoms / signs

  • What is the key problem /condition …?

  • Monitor A-B-C / Administer 100% oxygen

  • Alert EMS


Role of cox n in an emergency

Role of Cox’n in an Emergency

  • Ensure VHF radio is working and listen in

  • Ensure EMS is alerted

  • Know your exact position

  • Follow instructions of EMS

  • Ensure a record is kept


Gas toxicity

Gas Toxicity

Oxygen (02)

Nitrogen (N2)

Carbon Dioxide (C02)

Carbon Monoxide (CO)


Oxygen 0 2 toxicity hyperoxia

Oxygen (02) Toxicity (hyperoxia)

  • Oxygen at partial pressure >1.6 bar is toxic

  • Poisonous to various body tissues - especially the brain and nervous tissues

  • First Aid O2 delivered at 1 bar is safe


Oxygen 0 2 toxicity hyperoxia1

Oxygen (02) Toxicity (hyperoxia)

  • Symptoms (CONVENTID)

    CONConvulsions

    VVisual disturbances/Tunnel vision

    EEars ringing (Tinnitus)

    NNausea

    TTingling or twitching (facial)

    IIrritability

    DDizziness or vertigo

  • Signs (two phases)

    • Tonic phase: the muscles “tone” or stiffen

    • Clonic phase: the muscles start to jerk


Oxygen 0 2 toxicity hyperoxia2

Oxygen (02) Toxicity (hyperoxia)

  • Treatment Underwater

    • If trained/familiar with the procedure, provide breathing gas with correct ppO2

    • Bring to the surface

    • Attempt lift after ‘Tonic’ phase has passed

  • Treatment on Surface

    • Monitor ABC / Administer 100% oxygen

    • Alert Emergency Medical Services (EMS)


Nitrogen n 2 narcosis

Nitrogen (N2) Narcosis

  • Increased ppN2 causes a form of ‘narcosis’ or intoxication

  • Symptoms

    • Elation / false sense of well-being / sight and sound altered

    • Feeling of unease, panic/fear

  • Signs

    • Unusual behaviour / Loss of judgement and dexterity

    • Panic / stupor and/or unconsciousness

    • Diver’s subsequent actions may lead to injury or drowning

  • Treatment

    • Ascend to a shallower depth – or to the surface if necessary


Carbon monoxide co toxicity

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Toxicity

  • C0 is produced when carbon is incompletely burned; fuels such as wood, petrol or diesel

  • Enters through lungs; delivered to blood

  • Red blood cells pick up CO instead of oxygen

  • Haemoglobin attracts CO 250 times more than oxygen

  • CO inhibits blood oxygenation and distribution to organs


Carbon monoxide co toxicity1

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Toxicity

  • Symptoms

    • Breathlessness on exertion/ fatigue, nausea headaches

    • Vertigo / noises in the ears

    • ‘Pins and needles’ / confusion and disorientation

  • Signs

    • Loss of consciousness without warning / red lips

    • Respiratory arrest


Carbon monoxide co toxicity2

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Toxicity

  • Treatment

    • Monitor ABC’s / 100% Oxygen / Contact EMS if necessary

    • Monitor all divers who used same air source

    • Retain cylinder for inspection

    • Medical assessment and hyperbaric oxygen


Carbon dioxide poisoning hypercapnia re inhalation of c0 2

Carbon Dioxide Poisoning (Hypercapnia) re-inhalation of C02

  • CO2 is a natural by-product of metabolism

  • High concentrations of CO2 can displace oxygen in the air

  • Hypoxia may be combined with CO2 toxicity

  • Hypercapnia may exacerbate conditions: narcosis, Hypothermia, DCI

  • Symptoms

    • Headache / confusion / disorientation / lethargy

  • Signs

    • Panic / hyperventilation / convulsions / unconsciousness

  • Treatment

    • Remove from source, i.e. surface / abort dive

    • Monitor ABC’s / Administer 100% oxygen / alert EMS


  • Near drowning

    Near Drowning


    Near drowning1

    Near Drowning

    Near drowning ......

    ..... the survival of a drowning event involving unconsciousness or water inhalation ......

    ..... can lead to serious secondary complications, including death, after the event ......

    There may be deterioration later – important to closely monitor patient closely following event


    Near drowning2

    Near Drowning

    • Symptoms

      • Respiratory distress: cough, wheeze, shortness of breath

    • Signs

      • Altered consciousness / Cyanosis: grey/blue skin

      • Froth around lips and nose

      • Respiratory arrest

      • Nothing initially…

    • Treatment

      • Remove from water, discontinue activity, check for other injuries, keep warm

      • Monitor ABC’s / 100% oxygen / Alert EMS

      • Hospitalise for observation - ‘secondary drowning’


    Diver first responder dfr module c diving emergencies 2 non dci

    • This slide for info only:

    • PHECC Clinical Practice Guidelines

    • [CPG]

    • SUBMERSION INCIDENT

    • For use by trained:

    • EMT

    • PARAMEDIC

    • ADVANCED PARAMEDIC


    Other pressure related illness

    Other Pressure Related Illness

    • DENTAL BAROTRAUMA

      • Loose fillings, badly fitting crown – pain on ascent / descent

      • Regular dental visits / check-ups

    • EAR PROBLEMS

      • Caused by mucus build-up, cold, perforation in ear drum

      • Don’t dive if you have a cold/infection

      • Visit GP if problems persist


    Prevention good diving practise

    Prevention - Good Diving Practise

    • DOD: dive planning

    • Location/profile planned

    • Maintain dive log

    • Fly ‘A’ Diving Flag during dive

    • Brief all re emergency procedures

    • Monitor location of divers throughout dive


    Safety at sea

    Safety at Sea

    • Plan your dive – dive your plan

    • Tides / charts / weather

    • Contingency and emergency plans

    • First aid and oxygen kits

    • SMB’s / hi-visibility clothing / flares / lights

    • Whistles / sound generators

    • In an Emergency: Channel 16: Tel 999 or 112


    Module c diving emergencies 2

    Module C: Diving Emergencies 2

    • We have covered

      • Dive accident site management

      • Gas toxicity

      • Near drowning

      • Minor barotrauma

      • Prevention - good diving practise


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