Mis definition
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MIS Definition . A computer-based system that makes information available to users with similar needs. Organizational Information Systems. Executive Information System (EIS). Manufacturing information system. Financial information system. Human resource information system.

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Mis definition

MIS Definition

  • A computer-based system that makes information available to users with similar needs.


Mis definition

Organizational Information Systems

Executive

Information

System

(EIS)

Manufacturing

information

system

Financial

information

system

Human resource

information

system

Marketing

information

system


Mis is an organizational resource

MIS is an Organizational Resource

  • Information

    • Past, present, future

    • Periodic reports, special reports, simulations

  • Similar needs

    • Functional area

    • Management level

    • Managers and nonmanagers


Report writing software

Report Writing Software

  • Periodic and special reports may look the same, the difference is in what triggers the report

    • periodic report - produced on a schedule

    • special report - produced when something out of the ordinary occurs


Mis definition

An Overtime Earnings Report

OVERTIME EARNINGS REPORT

FOR WEEK ENDING AUGUST 19

OVERTIME EARNINGS

Department No. Department Name Current Month Year-to-Date

16-10 Receiving $ 2,305.00 $ 5,319.20

16-11 Inspection $ 1,025.60 $ 4,386.12

16-12 Materials Handling $ 3,392.50 $12,629.00

16-13 Tooling $ 78.00 $ 1,049.00

16-14 Assembly $ 0.00 $ 792.80

16-15 Plating $ 3,504.90 $12,635.20

16-16 Shipping $ 5,219.16 $18,294.16

TOTALS $15,525.16 $55,105.48


Mis definition

  • SALES BY PRODUCT

  • FOR THE MONTH OF JUNE

    • PRODUCT PRODUCT CURRENT MONTH YEAR-TO-DATE

    • NUMBER NAME SALES SALES

    • 129875 GASKET CENTER CASE $ 5,090.23 $ 31,764.00

    • 087235 MAINSHAFT 4,760.01 29,329.45

    • 118320 1ST MOTION SHAFT 1,789.45 28,243.59

    • 250067 OIL SEAL REAR 11,560.24 23,450.07

    • 228203 LAYGEAR 8,369.34 14,709.03

    • 576000 HUB 5TH .00 13,623.68

    • 516012 SHIFT FORK 1-2 450.95 12,634.44

    • 090407 SYNCHRO RING 2ND 2,243.27 9,963.58

    • 282130 BUSH SHIFT LEVER .00 490.00

    • 576301 OIL SLINGER .00 11.50


Mis definition

GROUPED BAR CHART

GROUPED/MULTIPLE LINE CHART

Sales Revenue

Sales Revenue

Years

(c)

Years

(a)


Putting the mis in perspective

Putting the MIS in Perspective

  • The first attempt to make information available to management

  • Enjoyed its greatest prominence in the 1960s when it first originated


The mis and problem solving

The MIS and Problem Solving

  • Contributes because MIS is an organization-wide resource

  • Contributes because it keeps a continuous supply of information to the manager for problem identification and understanding


Information reporting systems irs

Information Reporting Systems (IRS)

  • Information is data that has been processed and is useful in decision making. it helps decision makers by increasing knowledge and decreasing uncertainty.

  • IRS Provide the following;

    • Correct and timely information to appropriate managers

    • Information on medium and long range operations

    • summarised information


Levels of management

Levels of Management

  • Top Level Management Strategic Decision making

  • Middle Level ManagementTactical Decision Making

  • Lower Level ManagementOperational Decision Making


Top level management

Top Level Management

  • Future Orientated and involves a great deal of uncertainty

  • Involves establishing goals and objectives for the organisation

  • May include the following;

    • Introducing new products, new markets, acquiring facilities,

    • raising capital, capital expenditure proposals etc


Middle managment

Middle Managment

  • Concerned with tactical decision making

  • Implementing strategy.

  • activities include;

    • planning working capital, scheduling working capital, formulating budgets,

    • managing personnel, etc


Lower level management

Lower Level Management

  • First line supervisors

  • Operating decisions to ensure specific jobs are done.

  • examples

    • stock control, selling, distribution, assigning jobs to staff


Differences across the decision making levels

Information Attribute

Strategic

Operational

Scope

Orientation

Detail

Source

Accuracy

Timescale

Wide

Future

Low

External

Low

Medium to long term

Narrow

Historic

High

Internal

High

Day to Day

Differences across the Decision Making levels


Types of reports

Types of Reports

  • Scheduled listings

  • Exception Reports

  • Predictive reports

  • Demand Reports


Scheduled listings

Scheduled listings

  • Produced at regular intervals and provide routine information to a wide variety of users.

  • Suffer from information overload and problems of relevance

  • Control and tracking oriented

  • Examples

    • Stock Listings

    • Standard costs

    • Customer Balances

    • Debtors listings

    • Monthly Sales reports


Exception reports

Exception Reports

  • Action Oriented

  • Monitors the performance of the business and any deviation from expected results triggers the generation of a report.

  • Examples

    • Stock Out Reports

    • Bad debts Report

    • Customer complaints


Predictive reports

Predictive Reports

  • Used for planning what if models,

  • Examples

    • MRP

    • Budgeting


Demand reports

Demand Reports

  • Solicited by managers

  • Normally produced on line and from a database

  • Examples

    • Correlation reports

    • Capital expenditure Evaluations


Internal versus external information

Internal versus External Information

  • Interest rates

  • Exchange Rates

  • Competitor Actions

  • Industry News

  • Socio Economic Information

  • Pricing

  • Strategic Initiatives by Competitors

  • Regulations


Non financial performance measurement

Non Financial Performance Measurement


Performance measurement

Performance Measurement

  • Much of the data currently reported by Executive Information Systems is based on Financial Performance Measures. These have several shortcomings including;

  • There are based on the general accounting model

  • They tend to be lagging as indicators of future performance

  • They are often not used by mangers when their making decisions

  • They can be manipulated or gamed both internally and externally.

  • They tell an incomplete story.


Non financial performance measures

Non Financial Performance Measures

  • The objective of many of these measures is to achieve a balanced score card form of reporting for management with financial, customer, quality and innovation information reported in tandem.

    • Order Cycle Times

    • Percent of Orders delivered on time

    • Inventory Turnover

    • Warranty Claim Rates

    • Service Outages

    • Order fulfilment accuracy

    • Friendliness of customer service staff


Non financial performance measures1

Non Financial Performance Measures

  • Response time to customers calls

  • Shareholder Value Analysis

  • Design to market Time

  • Employee Turnover

  • Process Cycle Times

  • Time to market

  • Capacity utilisation

  • Set up Times

  • Order management Time

  • Right First time


Mis definition

Manufacturing Information Systems


Mis definition

Manufacturing Information System

Manufacturing

Inventory

Control

Master

Production

Scheduling

Design

Engineering

Standard

Costing

Materials

Requirements

Planning

Bill

of

Materials

Job Costing

Capacity

Requirements

Planning

Shop Floor

Control

Labour

Performance


Manufacturing information system

Manufacturing Information System

  • Definition (same components as marketing)

    • A computer-based system that works in conjunction with other functional information systems to support the firm's management in solving problems that relate to manufacturing the firm's products


Mis definition

Production

subsystem

Inventory

subsystem

Quality

subsystem

Cost

subsystem

A Model of a Manufacturing System

Output

subsystems

Input

subsystems

Data Information

Accounting

information

system

D

A

T

A

B

A

S

E

Internal

sources

Industrial

engineering

system

Users

Environmental

sources

Manufacturing

intelligence

subsystem


Mis definition

Executive

information

system

An MRP II System

Other functional

information systems

Order

entry

Purchasing

Material

requirements

planning

Billing

Receiving

Accounts

payable

Accounts

receivable

General

ledger


Mis definition

Bill of

material

file

Planned

order

schedule

Master

produc-

tion

schedule

Raw

materials

inventory

file

An MRP System

Purchasing

system

3. Capacity

requirements

planning

Customer

order file

Order release

report

Sales

forecast

file

4.Order

release

system

1.Production

scheduling

system

2. Material

requirements

planning system

Finished-

goods

inventory

file

Order release

report

Planning reports

Produc-

tion

capacity

file

Performance reports

Exception reports

Shop floor

control

system

Changes to

planned orders


Computers in the physical system

Computers in the Physical System

  • CAD (a.k.a. computer-aided engineering)

    • Design database

  • CAM

  • Robotics


Accounting applications software

ACCOUNTING APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE


Introduction

Introduction

  • The term accounting applications software refers to packages which computerise the firm’s ledger accounting system and related functions such as payroll.

  • The emphasis is on transaction processing; hence, such software carries out a data processing function rather than an MIS or DSS function.

  • The accounting applications software can often be used to provide summary reports which may be useful for managerial decision-making.


The structure of accounting applications software

The structure of accounting applications software

  • Accounting applications software is generally modular in design. This means that the software can be purchased and operated in individual sections or modules (for example, a small business might decide to computerise only its sales ledger) but that where several modules are used simultaneously data is efficiently shared and transferred between them.

  • For example, when data is entered to the sales ledger, it is posted automatically by the system to the nominal ledger if that module also exists.


Mis definition

Accounting Information Systems

Word

Processing

Order

Processing

and entry

Accounts

Receivable

Fixed

Assets

and

Depreciation

General

Ledger

Payroll

Purchase

Order &

Receiving

Inventory

Management

Accounts

Payable


Mis definition

Input

physical

resources

A Model of an Accounting Information System

Environment

Information

Management

Data

processing

software

Data

Database

Accounting

Information

System

Output

physical

resources

Transform

Environment


Characteristics of the ais

Characteristics of the AIS

  • Performs necessary tasks

  • Standard procedures

  • Detailed data

  • Historical focus

  • Provides minimal problem-solving information


The ais is the first information oriented cbis subsystem to implement

The AIS is the first information-oriented CBIS subsystem to implement

  • MIS Depends on a good AIS

  • DSS Depends on a good AIS

  • ES Depends on a good AIS


The financial information system

The Financial Information System

  • A computer-based information system that works in conjunction with other functional information systems to support the firm’s management in solving problems that relate to financial operations and status

  • It provides information to persons both inside and outside of the firm


Mis definition

Forecasting

subsystem

Control

subsystem

A Model of a Financial Information System

Output

subsystems

Input

subsystems

Data Information

Accounting

information

system

Internal sources

Funds

management

subsystem

Internal

audit

subsystem

Users

Database

Environmental

sources

Financial

intelligence

subsystem


More prewritten software exists for the financial area than any other

More Prewritten Software Exists for the Financial Area than Any Other

  • Most is accounting in nature

  • Both general business and personal productivity software


Mis definition

Forecasting model

1.

The Budgeting Process

Sales forecast

Top

management

2.

Approved sales forecast

Resource planning

model

3.

Manufacturing

requirements

Marketing

requirements

Finance

requirements

Human resource

requirements

Information services

requirements

Human resource

manager

Information

services

manager

4.

Finance

manager

Marketing

manager

Manufacturing

manager

Requested information

services budget

Requested

human

resources

budget

Requested

manufacturing

budget

Requested

finance

budget

Requested

marketing

budget

Top

management

5.

Final organizational

budget


Mis definition

BUDGET REPORT

AS OF JANUARY 31 MIDWEST REGION

CURRENT MONTH YEAR-TO-DATE

ITEM BUDGET ACTUAL DOLLARS BUDGET ACTUAL DOLLARS

SALARIES $23,500 $22,000 $1,500- $59,000 $54,250 $4,750-

TRAVEL 8,250 9,000 750+ 23,500 28,100 4,600+

ENTERTAINMENT 1,400 1,635 235+ 4,200 5,100 900+

TELEPHONE 200 85 115+ 600 225 375+

RENT 535 535 0 1,605 1,605 0

FURNITURE 0 0 0 420 505 85+

SUPPLIES 625 410 215- 1,875 1,320 555-

MISC. 400 620 220+ 1,200 1,963 765+

TOTAL $34,910 $34,285 625-$92,400 $93,070 670+


Information reporting systems in marketing

INFORMATION REPORTING SYSTEMS IN MARKETING


Mis definition

Marketing Information Systems

Customer

Service

Analysis

Sales Force

Management

Logistics

and

Distriubution

Sales

Performance

Analysis

Promotion

Market

Research

Budgeting

Product

Analysis


Mis definition

Functional Information Systems Represent

Functional Physical Systems

Functional information systems

Human resource

information

system

Information resource

information

system

Marketing

information

system

Manufacturing

information

system

Finance

information

system

Human

resources

function

Information Services

function

Marketing

function

Manufacturing

function

Finance

function

Physical system of the firm


Mis definition

Kotler’s Information Flows

Marketing intelligence

Internal

marketing

information

Environ-

ment

Firm

Marketing communications


Mis definition

Marketing Information System Model

Data

Information

Input subsystems

Output subsystems

Product subsystem

D

A

T

A

B

A

S

E

Accounting informationsystem

Place subsystem

Internal sources

Marketing research subsystem

Promotion subsystem

Users

Price subsystem

Environmental sources

Marketing intelligence subsystem

Integrated-mix subsystem


Mis definition

The Product Life Cycle and Related Decisions

STAGES

Introduction

Growth

Maturity

Decline

Sales

Volume

Should the

product be

introduced

Should the

product be

deleted

Should the product strategy

be changed


Mis definition

Model Use Is Becoming More Balanced

Strategic planning

level .17

Strategic planning

level .30

Management

control

level

.70

Management

control

level

.54

Operational control

level .16

Operational control

level .13

1980

1990

Note: The percentages are based on the number of respondents

ranking the particular management levels first.


Overall support from the marketing information system is becoming more balanced

Overall Support from the Marketing Information System Is Becoming More Balanced

Strategic planning

level

.28

Strategic planning

level

.25

Management control

level

.57

Management control

level

.40

Operational Control

level .31

Operational control

level .17

1980

1990

Note: The percentages are based on the number of respondents ranking the particular management levels first.


Mis definition

Human Resource

Information Systems


The hr manager is often a director who is not a member of the executive committee

The HR manager is often a director who is not a member of the executive committee.

The importance of the human resource

function and the human

resources information system has

grown over the last ten years


Mis definition

Primary HR Activities

Education

& Training

Terminat-

ion

Benefit

Administration

Hiring

Recruiting

The Firm

Potential

Employees

Employees

Retired

Employees

Data Management


Mis definition

Output

subsystems

HRIS Model

Input

subsystems

Work force

planning

subsystem

Data Information

Accounting

information

system

Recruiting

subsystem

Internal

sources

Human

resources

research

system

Work force

management

subsystem

Users

HRIS

Database

Environmental

sources

Compensation

Subsystem

Manufacturing

intelligence

subsystem

Benefits

subsystem

Environmental

reporting

subsystem


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