Chapter 17
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Chapter 17. Ferment of Reform and Culture. Goals 1. The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening helped to fuel a spirit of social reform

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Chapter 17

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Chapter 17

Chapter 17

Ferment of Reform and Culture


Chapter 17

  • Goals

  • 1. The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening helped to fuel a spirit of social reform

  • 2. The spirit of optimism and reform affected nearly all areas of American life and culture, including education, the role of women and family, and literature and the arts


Reviving religion

Reviving Religion

  • Comparing religion in 1850 to the colonial times

  • Calvinist values still important

  • Severity not as prevalent


Chapter 17

  • Ideas from the Age of Reason also prevalent

    • Thomas Paine said churches only set up to enslave and keep power


Chapter 17

  • Deism also still prevalent

    • Denied Christ’s divinity and original sin

    • Humans are basically good an can be more

    • Science more important then bible

    • Accepted a supreme being as creator

    • Founding fathers were believers


Chapter 17

  • Unitarian evolved from Deism

    • Denied trinity and divinity

    • Free will

    • Salvation through good works

    • God is a loving God

    • Appealed to intellectuals


The second great awakening

The Second Great Awakening

  • Began about 1800

  • Reaction to liberal trends in religion

  • Reaction to Puritan Conservatism

  • Opposed rationalism of Enlightenment


Chapter 17

  • Awakening against the Catholic Church because it was democratic

  • Said that humans have free will

  • Ministers must get people to live right

  • All who wanted to could be saved: Conversion important


Chapter 17

  • Methodists and Baptists

    • New protestant denominations started at this time

    • Stressed personal conversion instead of predestination

    • Democratic control of church

    • Emotionalism

    • Circuit riders


Who were circuit riders

Who were Circuit Riders

  • Peter Cartwright

  • Beat God into you

  • Charles Grandison Finney

    • Billy Graham of his time

    • Begin preaching in NY

    • Against slavery and alcohol

    • Anxious Bench


Denominational diversity

Denominational Diversity

  • So much preaching some areas get called Burned Over district

  • Millerites/Adventists

    • God was coming Oct 22 1844


Religion classes regions

Religion, classes, Regions

  • Eastern part of country stayed untouched

  • Poorer classes tended to identify with newer religion and awakening

  • Rich and poor gap

  • Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Unitarians: Wealthy

  • Methodists and Baptists came from less prosperous and less educated, rural south


Mormon

Mormon

  • Distinctly American Religion

  • Joseph Smith gets plates from Angel

  • Book of Mormon

  • Oligarchy

    • Not accepted in a Democratic society

    • Voted as a unit

    • Had own militia

    • Polygamy

    • Challenged American ideals


Chapter 17

  • Smith and brother killed by mob

  • Young new leader

  • Takes people west

  • Gets to Utah 46-47

  • Crops saved by Seagulls, so they decided to stay

  • 27 wives, 56 children

  • 1857 US gov. march against Mormons

  • 1896 Statehood


Free schools free people

Free Schools/Free People

  • Early fears of public education

  • Do we want a country of Paupers

  • Educate young, not pay for them later

  • Taxes to pay


Chapter 17

  • 1825-50: education triumphed, not in south

  • Both ignorant and free we will never be

  • Schoolhouses

    • One room

    • Male teacher

    • Boarded at houses

    • Not educated

    • Likin’ than larnin’

    • Three R’s


Leading learners

Leading Learners

  • Horace Mann

    • MA

    • 1837: Statewide Education

    • Noah Webster

      • Reading lessons

      • Patriotism

      • 1828 dictionary

      • McGuffey: readers that young people read and learned values from


Higher goals for learning

Higher Goals for Learning

  • Colleges start growing

  • Small denominational colleges in south and west

  • Local pride than education sometimes

  • Basic courses: Latin, Greek, philosophy

  • State supported:

    • North Carolina: 1795

    • University of Vg. TJ


Women and education

Women and Education

  • At first frowned upon to have women were too educated

  • Too much learning hurts female brain

  • Emma Willard: Troy Female Seminary

  • Mary Lyon: Holyoke

  • Oberlin: allowed Af/Am and Women


Other educational options

Other educational options

  • Private libraries

  • House to House peddlers

  • Lyceums


Age of reform

Age of Reform

  • Everything could be reformed

  • Fad Diets: Graham to important social issues like slavery

  • Spurred on by 2nd GA

  • Women large part of Reform


Prisons and mentally ill

Prisons and Mentally Ill

  • Stop debtors prison

  • Soften criminal codes

  • Capital punishment eased

  • Reformatories v. penitentiaries

  • Mentally Ill

    • End of the treatment as if they were evil and chained

    • Dorthea Dix


Peace and rum

Peace and Rum

  • American Peace Society

    • Started out with a lot of support

    • But wars in Crimea and the Civil War the party loses support


Chapter 17

  • Consumption of alcohol in 1820 triple what it is today

  • Alcohol, cheaper then milk and safer then water

  • American Temperance Society

    • 1826

    • Temperance not prohibition

    • Propertied class fear mobs

    • Prohibition also in favor in some states

    • Maine 1851: Neal S. Dow Father of Prohibition

    • Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I saw There: T.S. Arthur


Women in revolt

Women in Revolt

  • 18th century women were not sup. To be public

  • Women were sup. To be pure, domestic, and submissive

  • 19th century

    • Men and women in different roles

    • Women’s job positions declining

    • Thought to be emotionally and physically weak


Chapter 17

  • Women were concentrated in NE

  • Middle and upper class

  • Well educated, Quakers, and Congressionalist's

  • Mott, Stanton, and Susan B

  • Blackwell, Bloomer, Grimke's and Stone

  • Seneca Falls 1848

    • Declaration of Sentiments


Wilderness utopias

Wilderness Utopias

  • Stop the world! I want to get off!

  • Utopian communities

  • Religious and Political/Economic

  • Focus is on the group not individual


Chapter 17

  • New Harmony: Indiana: Owen

    • Cooperative ideals

    • Everyone working together

    • Fell apart

  • Brook Farm

    • Intellectuals

    • Lost building in fire and fell apart

    • Plain living and high thinking

    • Debt

  • Oneida

    • Free love and complex marriage

    • Eugenics

    • Leader was an adulterer

    • Lasted 30 years

  • Shakers

    • Christ was everywhere

    • Mother Ann Stanley

    • Female embodiment of Christ

    • Segregate the men and women


Dawn of scientific achievement

Dawn of Scientific Achievement

  • People in America want practical gadgets

  • Copy European ideas

  • American Ingenuity

  • Nature

    • Audubon

    • Scientist and naturalist

    • Creating a record by observation


Chapter 17

  • Medicine

    • Needed to be revamped

    • Antiquated ways of dealing with people, bleeding

    • Surgery, laughing gas, but not pain killers

    • Patent medicines


Chapter 17

Art

  • Architecture

    • Greek Revival

    • Capital architecture

      • University of VG

      • TJ

      • Designed in Greek Model


Painting

Painting

  • Stuart: Washington

  • Peale: Washington

  • Trumbell: Revolution

  • Hudson River School

  • Bierstadt

    • Landscapes, nationalism, romanticism and emotionalism

    • Nature beauty

    • Panoramic


Pictures and music

Pictures and Music

  • Music:

    • More upbeat

    • Stephen Foster

    • Daguerreotypes 1831

      • Named after Louis Daguerre


Literature

Literature

  • Knickerbockers

    • Irving and Cooper

    • Nobility of frontier

    • Bryant: Thonatopsis

    • One of first European accepted poems


Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism

  • 1830s

  • Against Age of Reason

  • All knowledge and truth not through observation, but emotion, idealism

  • Individualists and optimistic

  • Power in person to find Oversoul (God)


Chapter 17

  • Thoreau

    • Nature is happiness

    • Walden

    • Civil Disobedience: Influence MLK

  • Emerson

  • Self reliance, self confidence, optimism

  • Whitman

    • Poet

    • Changed accepted definitions of what was poetry


Literary lights

Literary Lights

  • Longfellow

    • epic poems

  • Whittier

    • Abolitionist poet

  • Lowell

    • Poet and essayist: condemns Mexican War

  • Holmes

    • Poet and novelist


Dissenters and individualists

Dissenters and Individualists

  • Hawthorne

    • Cannot escape evil

    • World imperfect

    • Attacked reformers

  • Poe

    • Difficult life

    • Died with nothing

    • Focused on dark stories


Chapter 17

  • Melville

    • Moby Dick

    • Good and evil

    • Ambition

    • HistoriansBancroft, Parkman, Weems


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