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Chapter 17. Ferment of Reform and Culture. Goals 1. The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening helped to fuel a spirit of social reform

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Chapter 17

Chapter 17

Ferment of Reform and Culture


  • Goals

  • 1. The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening helped to fuel a spirit of social reform

  • 2. The spirit of optimism and reform affected nearly all areas of American life and culture, including education, the role of women and family, and literature and the arts


Reviving religion
Reviving Religion

  • Comparing religion in 1850 to the colonial times

  • Calvinist values still important

  • Severity not as prevalent



  • Deism also still prevalent

    • Denied Christ’s divinity and original sin

    • Humans are basically good an can be more

    • Science more important then bible

    • Accepted a supreme being as creator

    • Founding fathers were believers


  • Unitarian evolved from Deism

    • Denied trinity and divinity

    • Free will

    • Salvation through good works

    • God is a loving God

    • Appealed to intellectuals


The second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening

  • Began about 1800

  • Reaction to liberal trends in religion

  • Reaction to Puritan Conservatism

  • Opposed rationalism of Enlightenment



  • Methodists and Baptists democratic

    • New protestant denominations started at this time

    • Stressed personal conversion instead of predestination

    • Democratic control of church

    • Emotionalism

    • Circuit riders


Who were circuit riders
Who were Circuit Riders democratic

  • Peter Cartwright

  • Beat God into you

  • Charles Grandison Finney

    • Billy Graham of his time

    • Begin preaching in NY

    • Against slavery and alcohol

    • Anxious Bench


Denominational diversity
Denominational Diversity democratic

  • So much preaching some areas get called Burned Over district

  • Millerites/Adventists

    • God was coming Oct 22 1844


Religion classes regions
Religion, classes, Regions democratic

  • Eastern part of country stayed untouched

  • Poorer classes tended to identify with newer religion and awakening

  • Rich and poor gap

  • Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Unitarians: Wealthy

  • Methodists and Baptists came from less prosperous and less educated, rural south


Mormon
Mormon democratic

  • Distinctly American Religion

  • Joseph Smith gets plates from Angel

  • Book of Mormon

  • Oligarchy

    • Not accepted in a Democratic society

    • Voted as a unit

    • Had own militia

    • Polygamy

    • Challenged American ideals


  • Smith and brother killed by mob democratic

  • Young new leader

  • Takes people west

  • Gets to Utah 46-47

  • Crops saved by Seagulls, so they decided to stay

  • 27 wives, 56 children

  • 1857 US gov. march against Mormons

  • 1896 Statehood


Free schools free people
Free Schools/Free People democratic

  • Early fears of public education

  • Do we want a country of Paupers

  • Educate young, not pay for them later

  • Taxes to pay



Leading learners
Leading Learners democratic

  • Horace Mann

    • MA

    • 1837: Statewide Education

    • Noah Webster

      • Reading lessons

      • Patriotism

      • 1828 dictionary

      • McGuffey: readers that young people read and learned values from


Higher goals for learning
Higher Goals for Learning democratic

  • Colleges start growing

  • Small denominational colleges in south and west

  • Local pride than education sometimes

  • Basic courses: Latin, Greek, philosophy

  • State supported:

    • North Carolina: 1795

    • University of Vg. TJ


Women and education
Women and Education democratic

  • At first frowned upon to have women were too educated

  • Too much learning hurts female brain

  • Emma Willard: Troy Female Seminary

  • Mary Lyon: Holyoke

  • Oberlin: allowed Af/Am and Women


Other educational options
Other educational options democratic

  • Private libraries

  • House to House peddlers

  • Lyceums


Age of reform
Age of Reform democratic

  • Everything could be reformed

  • Fad Diets: Graham to important social issues like slavery

  • Spurred on by 2nd GA

  • Women large part of Reform


Prisons and mentally ill
Prisons and Mentally Ill democratic

  • Stop debtors prison

  • Soften criminal codes

  • Capital punishment eased

  • Reformatories v. penitentiaries

  • Mentally Ill

    • End of the treatment as if they were evil and chained

    • Dorthea Dix


Peace and rum
Peace and Rum democratic

  • American Peace Society

    • Started out with a lot of support

    • But wars in Crimea and the Civil War the party loses support


  • Consumption of alcohol in 1820 triple what it is today democratic

  • Alcohol, cheaper then milk and safer then water

  • American Temperance Society

    • 1826

    • Temperance not prohibition

    • Propertied class fear mobs

    • Prohibition also in favor in some states

    • Maine 1851: Neal S. Dow Father of Prohibition

    • Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I saw There: T.S. Arthur


Women in revolt
Women in Revolt democratic

  • 18th century women were not sup. To be public

  • Women were sup. To be pure, domestic, and submissive

  • 19th century

    • Men and women in different roles

    • Women’s job positions declining

    • Thought to be emotionally and physically weak


  • Women were concentrated in NE democratic

  • Middle and upper class

  • Well educated, Quakers, and Congressionalist's

  • Mott, Stanton, and Susan B

  • Blackwell, Bloomer, Grimke's and Stone

  • Seneca Falls 1848

    • Declaration of Sentiments


Wilderness utopias
Wilderness Utopias democratic

  • Stop the world! I want to get off!

  • Utopian communities

  • Religious and Political/Economic

  • Focus is on the group not individual


  • New Harmony: Indiana: Owen democratic

    • Cooperative ideals

    • Everyone working together

    • Fell apart

  • Brook Farm

    • Intellectuals

    • Lost building in fire and fell apart

    • Plain living and high thinking

    • Debt

  • Oneida

    • Free love and complex marriage

    • Eugenics

    • Leader was an adulterer

    • Lasted 30 years

  • Shakers

    • Christ was everywhere

    • Mother Ann Stanley

    • Female embodiment of Christ

    • Segregate the men and women


Dawn of scientific achievement
Dawn of Scientific Achievement democratic

  • People in America want practical gadgets

  • Copy European ideas

  • American Ingenuity

  • Nature

    • Audubon

    • Scientist and naturalist

    • Creating a record by observation


  • Medicine democratic

    • Needed to be revamped

    • Antiquated ways of dealing with people, bleeding

    • Surgery, laughing gas, but not pain killers

    • Patent medicines


Art democratic

  • Architecture

    • Greek Revival

    • Capital architecture

      • University of VG

      • TJ

      • Designed in Greek Model


Painting
Painting democratic

  • Stuart: Washington

  • Peale: Washington

  • Trumbell: Revolution

  • Hudson River School

  • Bierstadt

    • Landscapes, nationalism, romanticism and emotionalism

    • Nature beauty

    • Panoramic


Pictures and music
Pictures and Music democratic

  • Music:

    • More upbeat

    • Stephen Foster

    • Daguerreotypes 1831

      • Named after Louis Daguerre


Literature
Literature democratic

  • Knickerbockers

    • Irving and Cooper

    • Nobility of frontier

    • Bryant: Thonatopsis

    • One of first European accepted poems


Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism democratic

  • 1830s

  • Against Age of Reason

  • All knowledge and truth not through observation, but emotion, idealism

  • Individualists and optimistic

  • Power in person to find Oversoul (God)


  • Thoreau democratic

    • Nature is happiness

    • Walden

    • Civil Disobedience: Influence MLK

  • Emerson

  • Self reliance, self confidence, optimism

  • Whitman

    • Poet

    • Changed accepted definitions of what was poetry


Literary lights
Literary Lights democratic

  • Longfellow

    • epic poems

  • Whittier

    • Abolitionist poet

  • Lowell

    • Poet and essayist: condemns Mexican War

  • Holmes

    • Poet and novelist


Dissenters and individualists
Dissenters and Individualists democratic

  • Hawthorne

    • Cannot escape evil

    • World imperfect

    • Attacked reformers

  • Poe

    • Difficult life

    • Died with nothing

    • Focused on dark stories


  • Melville democratic

    • Moby Dick

    • Good and evil

    • Ambition

    • Historians Bancroft, Parkman, Weems


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