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Chapter 17. Ferment of Reform and Culture. Goals 1. The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening helped to fuel a spirit of social reform

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chapter 17

Chapter 17

Ferment of Reform and Culture

slide2
Goals
  • 1. The religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening helped to fuel a spirit of social reform
  • 2. The spirit of optimism and reform affected nearly all areas of American life and culture, including education, the role of women and family, and literature and the arts
reviving religion
Reviving Religion
  • Comparing religion in 1850 to the colonial times
  • Calvinist values still important
  • Severity not as prevalent
slide4
Ideas from the Age of Reason also prevalent
    • Thomas Paine said churches only set up to enslave and keep power
slide5
Deism also still prevalent
    • Denied Christ’s divinity and original sin
    • Humans are basically good an can be more
    • Science more important then bible
    • Accepted a supreme being as creator
    • Founding fathers were believers
slide6
Unitarian evolved from Deism
    • Denied trinity and divinity
    • Free will
    • Salvation through good works
    • God is a loving God
    • Appealed to intellectuals
the second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening
  • Began about 1800
  • Reaction to liberal trends in religion
  • Reaction to Puritan Conservatism
  • Opposed rationalism of Enlightenment
slide8
Awakening against the Catholic Church because it was democratic
  • Said that humans have free will
  • Ministers must get people to live right
  • All who wanted to could be saved: Conversion important
slide9
Methodists and Baptists
    • New protestant denominations started at this time
    • Stressed personal conversion instead of predestination
    • Democratic control of church
    • Emotionalism
    • Circuit riders
who were circuit riders
Who were Circuit Riders
  • Peter Cartwright
  • Beat God into you
  • Charles Grandison Finney
    • Billy Graham of his time
    • Begin preaching in NY
    • Against slavery and alcohol
    • Anxious Bench
denominational diversity
Denominational Diversity
  • So much preaching some areas get called Burned Over district
  • Millerites/Adventists
    • God was coming Oct 22 1844
religion classes regions
Religion, classes, Regions
  • Eastern part of country stayed untouched
  • Poorer classes tended to identify with newer religion and awakening
  • Rich and poor gap
  • Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Unitarians: Wealthy
  • Methodists and Baptists came from less prosperous and less educated, rural south
mormon
Mormon
  • Distinctly American Religion
  • Joseph Smith gets plates from Angel
  • Book of Mormon
  • Oligarchy
    • Not accepted in a Democratic society
    • Voted as a unit
    • Had own militia
    • Polygamy
    • Challenged American ideals
slide14
Smith and brother killed by mob
  • Young new leader
  • Takes people west
  • Gets to Utah 46-47
  • Crops saved by Seagulls, so they decided to stay
  • 27 wives, 56 children
  • 1857 US gov. march against Mormons
  • 1896 Statehood
free schools free people
Free Schools/Free People
  • Early fears of public education
  • Do we want a country of Paupers
  • Educate young, not pay for them later
  • Taxes to pay
slide16
1825-50: education triumphed, not in south
  • Both ignorant and free we will never be
  • Schoolhouses
    • One room
    • Male teacher
    • Boarded at houses
    • Not educated
    • Likin’ than larnin’
    • Three R’s
leading learners
Leading Learners
  • Horace Mann
    • MA
    • 1837: Statewide Education
    • Noah Webster
      • Reading lessons
      • Patriotism
      • 1828 dictionary
      • McGuffey: readers that young people read and learned values from
higher goals for learning
Higher Goals for Learning
  • Colleges start growing
  • Small denominational colleges in south and west
  • Local pride than education sometimes
  • Basic courses: Latin, Greek, philosophy
  • State supported:
    • North Carolina: 1795
    • University of Vg. TJ
women and education
Women and Education
  • At first frowned upon to have women were too educated
  • Too much learning hurts female brain
  • Emma Willard: Troy Female Seminary
  • Mary Lyon: Holyoke
  • Oberlin: allowed Af/Am and Women
other educational options
Other educational options
  • Private libraries
  • House to House peddlers
  • Lyceums
age of reform
Age of Reform
  • Everything could be reformed
  • Fad Diets: Graham to important social issues like slavery
  • Spurred on by 2nd GA
  • Women large part of Reform
prisons and mentally ill
Prisons and Mentally Ill
  • Stop debtors prison
  • Soften criminal codes
  • Capital punishment eased
  • Reformatories v. penitentiaries
  • Mentally Ill
    • End of the treatment as if they were evil and chained
    • Dorthea Dix
peace and rum
Peace and Rum
  • American Peace Society
    • Started out with a lot of support
    • But wars in Crimea and the Civil War the party loses support
slide24
Consumption of alcohol in 1820 triple what it is today
  • Alcohol, cheaper then milk and safer then water
  • American Temperance Society
    • 1826
    • Temperance not prohibition
    • Propertied class fear mobs
    • Prohibition also in favor in some states
    • Maine 1851: Neal S. Dow Father of Prohibition
    • Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I saw There: T.S. Arthur
women in revolt
Women in Revolt
  • 18th century women were not sup. To be public
  • Women were sup. To be pure, domestic, and submissive
  • 19th century
    • Men and women in different roles
    • Women’s job positions declining
    • Thought to be emotionally and physically weak
slide26
Women were concentrated in NE
  • Middle and upper class
  • Well educated, Quakers, and Congressionalist\'s
  • Mott, Stanton, and Susan B
  • Blackwell, Bloomer, Grimke\'s and Stone
  • Seneca Falls 1848
    • Declaration of Sentiments
wilderness utopias
Wilderness Utopias
  • Stop the world! I want to get off!
  • Utopian communities
  • Religious and Political/Economic
  • Focus is on the group not individual
slide28
New Harmony: Indiana: Owen
    • Cooperative ideals
    • Everyone working together
    • Fell apart
  • Brook Farm
    • Intellectuals
    • Lost building in fire and fell apart
    • Plain living and high thinking
    • Debt
  • Oneida
    • Free love and complex marriage
    • Eugenics
    • Leader was an adulterer
    • Lasted 30 years
  • Shakers
    • Christ was everywhere
    • Mother Ann Stanley
    • Female embodiment of Christ
    • Segregate the men and women
dawn of scientific achievement
Dawn of Scientific Achievement
  • People in America want practical gadgets
  • Copy European ideas
  • American Ingenuity
  • Nature
    • Audubon
    • Scientist and naturalist
    • Creating a record by observation
slide30
Medicine
    • Needed to be revamped
    • Antiquated ways of dealing with people, bleeding
    • Surgery, laughing gas, but not pain killers
    • Patent medicines
slide31
Art
  • Architecture
    • Greek Revival
    • Capital architecture
      • University of VG
      • TJ
      • Designed in Greek Model
painting
Painting
  • Stuart: Washington
  • Peale: Washington
  • Trumbell: Revolution
  • Hudson River School
  • Bierstadt
    • Landscapes, nationalism, romanticism and emotionalism
    • Nature beauty
    • Panoramic
pictures and music
Pictures and Music
  • Music:
    • More upbeat
    • Stephen Foster
    • Daguerreotypes 1831
      • Named after Louis Daguerre
literature
Literature
  • Knickerbockers
    • Irving and Cooper
    • Nobility of frontier
    • Bryant: Thonatopsis
    • One of first European accepted poems
transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
  • 1830s
  • Against Age of Reason
  • All knowledge and truth not through observation, but emotion, idealism
  • Individualists and optimistic
  • Power in person to find Oversoul (God)
slide36
Thoreau
    • Nature is happiness
    • Walden
    • Civil Disobedience: Influence MLK
  • Emerson
  • Self reliance, self confidence, optimism
  • Whitman
    • Poet
    • Changed accepted definitions of what was poetry
literary lights
Literary Lights
  • Longfellow
    • epic poems
  • Whittier
    • Abolitionist poet
  • Lowell
    • Poet and essayist: condemns Mexican War
  • Holmes
    • Poet and novelist
dissenters and individualists
Dissenters and Individualists
  • Hawthorne
    • Cannot escape evil
    • World imperfect
    • Attacked reformers
  • Poe
    • Difficult life
    • Died with nothing
    • Focused on dark stories
slide39
Melville
    • Moby Dick
    • Good and evil
    • Ambition
    • Historians Bancroft, Parkman, Weems
ad