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METODOS INSTRUMENTALES. INTRODUCCIÓN. Classification of Analytical Methods. Qualitative instrumental analysis is that measured property indicates presence of analyte in matrix Quantitative instrumental analysis is that magnitude of measured

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classification of analytical methods
Classification of Analytical Methods
  • Qualitative instrumental analysis is that measured property
    • indicates presence of analyte in matrix
  • Quantitative instrumental analysis is that magnitude of measured
    • property is proportional to concentration of analyte in matrix
classical
Classical
  • Qualitative - identification by color, indicators, boiling points,
  • odors
  • Quantitative - mass or volume (e.g. gravimetric, volumetric)
instrumental
Instrumental
  • Qualitative - chromatography, electrophoresis and identification by measuring physical property (e.g. spectroscopy, electrode potential)
  • Quantitative - measuring property and determining relationship to concentration (e.g. spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry)
  • Often, same instrumental method used for qualitative and quantitative analysis
types of instrumental methods
Types of Instrumental Methods
  • Property Example Method

Radiation emission Emission spectroscopy - fluorescence, phosphorescence, luminescence

Radiation absorption Absorption spectroscopy -spectrophotometry, photometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance

  • Radiation scattering Turbidity, Raman
  • Radiation refraction Refractometry, interferometry
  • Radiation diffraction X-ray, electron
slide6

Radiation rotation Polarimetry, circular dichroism

  • Electrical potential Potentiometry
  • Electrical charge Coulometry
  • Electrical current Voltammetry - amperometry, polarography
  • Electrical resistance Conductometry
  • Mass Gravimetry
  • Mass-to-charge ratio Mass spectrometry
  • Rate of reaction Stopped flow, flow injection analysis
  • Thermal Thermal gravimetry, calorimetry
  • Radioactivity Activation, isotope dilution
slide8
DATA
  • Time - vary with time (frequency, phase, pulse width)
  • Analog - continuously variable magnitude (current, voltage, charge)
  • Digital - discrete values (count, serial, parallel, number*)
performance characteristics
Performance Characteristics

How to choose an analytical method?

  • How good is measurement?
  • How reproducible? - Precision
  • How close to true value? - Accuracy/Bias
  • How small a difference can be measured? - Sensitivity
  • What range of amounts? - Dynamic Range
  • How much interference? - Selectivity
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