Chap 1 discussed that lead to chap 2 Chemical level (levels of organization) Types of metabolism : catabolism and anabolism Requirements for life : water, O2, nutrients, heat homeostasis. Chemistry, Matter, and Life. Chapter 2.
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Atoms-An element is composed of atoms that are all of the same kind. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element. An atom is made up of still smaller subunits or particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. A dense region called the nucleus contains the protons and neutrons.
An ionic bond is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms. It holds atoms together within molecules.
Do some examples on the board: ionic bonds hydroxide, bicarbonate, phos
Do some examples on the board: covalent bonds, water, c dioxide, nito gas
Chemical formula for aspirin
Left side of equation is the reactants
Right side of the equation is the products
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS: when 2 simple molecules combine to
Form a more complex molecule by the removal of water
Many reactions in the body are this type: glucose to glycogen exp
Reactant break to form new, simpler products.
Are these catabolic or anabolic?
AB A + B
HYDROLYSIS REACTION: When water is used to break the bonds
Example is digestion
REACTION RATESChemical reactions occur at different rates.Forming of rust or tarnishing a silver are exp slowburning of paper or setting of epoxy are exp of fastsome are explosive like of dynamite going off.
Influences of reaction rates are:
Nature of reacting substance
If alcohol is used as the
Solvent the solution is
Called a tincture
Exp. when iodine is
Dissolved In alcohol.
Suspensions-settles unless continually shaken. If sand is mixed with water sand particles will settle at bottom. A suspension
is cloudy and it’s particles settle. Blood cells form a suspension in plasma.
The Na positively charged ion is attracted to the negatively charged oxygen
End of the water molecule.
BASES HAVE A PH GREATER THAN 7
STRENGTH OF AN ACID OR A BASE.
The greater # Hydrogen ions more acidic and the lower
Is the pH
Fewer hydrogen ions more basic solutions with higher
Pure water has a pH of 7
Blood has a pH of 7.4,
Is blood slightly acidic or alkalotic?
* The hydrogen ion from the acid reacts with the hydroxide ion from
The base to form water
* The acid removes or neutralizes the effect of the base and vice versa.
The other product is salt
*Salts are ionic compounds produced from neutralization reactions
* Neutralization reactions help maintain the proper pH of blood
Buffers are one of the homeostatic control mechanisms that maintain a normal pH
In the Human body, acid-base balance is regulated by chemical buffer systems, the lungs and the kidneys.
The five major groups of organic compounds that are important to the human body are: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and adenosine triphosphate.
Carbs-important energy source in the body, it forms a reserve supply of stored energy.
The simplest carbs are the monosaccharides or simple sugars:
it is composed of 1 carbon atom, 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
The most important simple sugar is glucose
It has 6 carbons atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms
Because it has 6 carbons it is called a hexose
Other simple sugars are fructose and galactose.
Glucose requires no digestion therefore it can be given IV D 50
SEE PG 34 IN TEXT
Disaccharide: when 2 hexose monosaccharides are linked also called a double sugar3 common disaccharides1. Sucrose: table sugar2. Maltose: malt sugar3. Lactose: milk sugarPolysaccharides: long chains of monosaccharaides linked together 3 important polysaccharides1. starch: storage food in plants2. Cellulose: supporting tissue of plants (humans breakdown)3. glycogen: animal starch, storage form of carbs in the body
There is 20 total amino acids in the body, 11 can be man made, 9 must be eaten
Proteins is the basic structural material of the body.
FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS
1. proteins can act as antibodies in the fight against disease
2. Muscles contain specific proteins that assist with contraction
3. Provide identification marks and receptor sites on cell membranes
4. They provide a source of energy
--Very similar to carbohydrates but have a lower oxygen content
--Insoluble in water but are generally soluble in alcohol
See table 2-6 pt 36
functions in the synthesis Of proteins
with in the cell.
Sugar is ribose
Nitrogenous bases are: adenine, uracil,
cytosine, and guanine.
The DNA material gives the instructions
For making proteins.
HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND COMPOSED OF ADENINE, RIBOSE
AND 3 PHOSPHATE GROUPS.
PHOSPHATE GROUP LINKED TOGETHER BY HIGH ENERGY BONDS
THAT RELEASE CHEMICAL ENERGY WHEN BROKEN.
THE CHEMICAL ENERGY IS USABLE BY THE CELLS OF THE BODY