Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives
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Sixth Grade English Benchmark Period Two Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics PASS Standards and Objectives. PASS GUM 3.2.b.6. Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause. subject verb direct object After Monkey wrote his report ,

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Sixth Grade English Benchmark Period Two Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics PASS Standards and Objectives

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Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Sixth Grade EnglishBenchmark Period TwoGrammar, Usage, and MechanicsPASS Standards and Objectives


Pass gum 3 2 b 6 use a comma after an introductory adverb clause

PASS GUM 3.2.b.6.Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.

subject verb direct object

After Monkeywrote his report,

subject verb direct obj. direct obj.

Pigchecked Monkey’s spelling and grammar.

Monkeys are so dumb; it’ll take a year to proofread it.

Monkeys are so smart. I won’t have any mistakes on my report.


Pass gum 3 2 b 6 use a comma after an introductory adverb clause1

PASS GUM 3.2.b.6.Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.

subject verb direct obj.

After Monkeywrote his report,

A clause has a

subject and verb

(Monkeywrote).

There are dependent and independent clauses. This one is dependent because it can’t stand alone.


Pass gum 3 2 b 6 use a comma after an introductory adverb clause2

PASS GUM 3.2.b.6.Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.

subject verb direct obj. direct object

Pigchecked Monkey’s spelling and grammar.

My clause also has a

subject and verb

(Pigchecked).

This is an independent clause because it can stand alone.


Pass gum 3 2 b 6 use a comma after an introductory adverb clause3

PASS GUM 3.2.b.6.Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.

All of these are “subordinating conjunctions.”

They are used to introduce adverb clauses.

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, once, provided that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while

Although I ate a banana, I am still hungry!If pigs had wings, they could fly. As soon as Monkey left, Pig ate the banana.


Pass gum 3 2 b 6 use a comma after an introductory adverb clause4

PASS GUM 3.2.b.6.Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause.

Write three sentences, each beginning with an introductory adverb clause. Use a different subordinating conjunction to start each sentence.

1.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Pass gum 3 2 b 15 use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses

PASS GUM 3.2.b.15. Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses.

subject verb subject verb Monkey is clever; Pig is smart.

A compound sentence with a semicolon

separating its two independent

clauses is very sophisticated!

Watch me make a little hat out of this banana peel!


Pass gum 3 2 b 15 use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses1

PASS GUM 3.2.b.15.Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses.

subject verb predicate adjective Monkey is clever;

My independent clause has a subject and verb

(Monkeyis).

Why is Monkey is clever;an independent clause?

Hint: Two reasons


Pass gum 3 2 b 15 use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses2

PASS GUM 3.2.b.15.Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses.

subject verb predicate adjective;Pig is smart.

My independent clause also has a subject and verb

(Pigis).

Why is Pig is smart.an independent clause?

Yes! 1. It has a subject and verb and2. It can stand on its own.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Write two sentences, each with two independent clauses separated by a semicolon.

1._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Pass gum 3 2 b 38 use s to make a singular noun possessive

PASS GUM 3.2.b.38.Use ’s to make a singular noun possessive.

Slither’s fangs / Tess’s tail / Mouse’s ears


Pass gum 3 2 b 38 use s to make a singular noun possessive1

PASS GUM 3.2.b.38.Use ’s to make a singular noun possessive.

Definitions and Examples1. ’s – apostrophe s2. Singular – one3. Noun – person (friend); place (school); thing (book); idea (frustration, happiness)4. Possessive – show ownershipEx: Singular noun – friend Singular possessive noun – friend’s phone


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Make your own sentences using the possessive form for the following singular nouns: dentist / Ms. Hess

1.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Pass gum 3 2 b 38 to make a plural noun ending in s possessive add an apostrophe

PASS GUM 3.2.b.38.To make a plural noun ending in –s possessive, add an apostrophe.

Look at the animals. Look at the animals’ ears!

Look at the pigs. Look at the pigs’ noses!


Pass gum 3 2 b 38 to make a plural noun ending in s possessive add an apostrophe1

PASS GUM 3.2.b.38.To make a plural noun ending in –s possessive, add an apostrophe.

Definitions and Examples1. ’s – apostrophe s2. Plural – two or more3. Noun – person (friend); place (school); thing (book); idea (frustration, happiness)4. Plural noun ending in –s – friends; schools; books; ideas (attitudes, goals, possibilities)5. Possessive – show ownershipEx: Plural noun ending in –s – students Plural possessive noun – students’ grades


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Make your own sentences using the possessive form for the following plural nouns: princesses / monsters.

1._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Pass gum 3 1 d make pronouns agree with their antecedents

PASS GUM 3.1.d.Make pronouns agree with their antecedents.

Every chick in the barnyard has (their, its) own personality.

Its is a pronoun.

Its must “agree” (be matching singular or plural) with the noun that Its refers to earlier in the sentence. That’s “pronoun-antecedent agreement.”

Now look, people.

Chick means one chick. You can’t talk about one chick and then go and say their. Their means more than one. Get it? Match them up, people!

Chick is singular; its is singular. Its that simple!


Pass gum 3 1 d make pronouns agree with their antecedents1

PASS GUM 3.1.d. Make pronouns agree with their antecedents.

Now you try a couple:

All of the contestants thought that (his or her, their) projects were judged fairly.

Each of the students wants to do (his or her, their) best.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

I hope you noticed that All is a plural pronoun. All matches their. They are both plural!

Each is singular. Each means “each one.” Each matches his or her. They are both singular!

All of the contestants thought that (his or her, their) projects were judged fairly.

Each of the students wants to do (his or her, their) best.


Pass gum 3 1 d make pronouns agree with their antecedents2

PASS GUM 3.1.d.Make pronouns agree with their antecedents.

Now try this one:

Everybody was late to (his or her, their) first hour this morning.

Hint: Is Everybody a singular or plural pronoun?


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Everybody was late to (his or her, their) first hour this morning.

Question: Is Everybody a singular or plural pronoun?

Answer: Everybody is a singular indefinite pronoun. (We say Everybody is, not Everybody are, right?)

So…Everybody and their DO NOT match! His or her, however, can get kind of awkward!

Most educated people try to think of a way to avoid saying his or her over and over. You could say

Everybody was late to first hour.

Everybody was late to school.

The bus was running late.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Uh-huh, I hear you thinking, “…nobody talks like that…everyone says stuff like everybody does their work – not everybody does his or her work…”

Yeah, I know that, but if you want to get it right on the four biggest tests in your life (EOI, ACT, PSAT, SAT), then learn it! Also, you may need to know how to speak properly some day.


Pass gum 3 1 c use nominative objective and possessive pronouns correctly

PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly.

subject verb direct------------------------------- object1. Fluffy loves Horsie and (I, me, myself). subject verb indirect------------------------------object direct obj.2.Fluffy told Cowie and (I, me, myself) a story.subjectverb direct obj. (prepositional phrase ending w/obj. of prep.)3.Fluffy told a story to Horsie and (I, me, myself). subjects------------------------------------ verb direct obj.4. Horsie and (I, me, myself) love Fluffy.

Can you select the correct pronouns?


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.1.c. Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly.Definitions and Examples1.Nominative pronouns – Used as subjects, predicate nominatives2.Objective pronouns – Used as direct objects, indirect objects, objects of the preposition3.Possessive pronouns – Used to show possession


Pass gum 3 1 c use nominative objective and possessive pronouns correctly1

PASS GUM 3.1.c.Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly.

subject verb direct--------------------------- objectFluffy loves Horsie and (I, me, myself).

Fluffy is the subject.

Horsie and me are the direct OBJECTS. The direct object receives the action of the verb (love from Fluffy).

Since me is an “object,” you can’t use the pronoun I, which is a pronoun you use for “subjects.”


Pass gum 3 1 c use nominative objective and possessive pronouns correctly2

PASS GUM 3.1.c.Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly.

Dude, I don’t do it that hard way. I just eliminate the “Cowie and…” and listen for what sounds right.

Listen…

Fluffy told I a story.

Fluffy told me a story.

Fluffy told myself a story.

The answer is me.

subject verb indirect-------------------------object direct obj.Fluffy told Cowie and (I, me, myself) a story.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

subject verb direct obj. (prepositional phrase ending w/object of prep.)Fluffy told a story to Horsie and (I, me, myself).

Subjects------------------------------------ verb direct obj.Horsie and (I, me, myself) love Fluffy.

It’s easy; just mentally mark out the “compound element”: Horsie and…

Then you can listen for the

correct pronoun answer!

Fluffy told a story to Horsie and (I, me, myself).

Horsie and (I, me, myself) love Fluffy.


Pass gum 3 1 c use nominative objective and possessive pronouns correctly3

PASS GUM 3.1.c.Use nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns correctly.

Try these two:

Bridget is going to the mall with Tyler and (I, me).

Keisha gave Jen and (me, I) her notes.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

Bridget is going to the mall with Tyler and (I, me).

Keisha gave Jen and (me, I) her notes.

Yes!

Bridget is going to the mall with ME.

(Just mentally mark out …Tyler and…)

Keisha gave ME her notes.

(Just mentally mark out …Jen and…)

Try this one:(Me and my brother, My brother and I) gave back to my sister the gift she gave to (my brother and me, my brother and I, my brother and myself) for our birthday.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

She always gives us hockey stuff.

We hate hockey stuff.

(Me and my brother, My brother and I) gave back to my sister the gift she gave to (my brother and me, my brother and I, my brother and myself) for our birthday.

I love hockey.

I hate soccer.


Pass gum 3 1 b use correct subject verb agreement

PASS GUM 3.1.b.Use correct subject-verb agreement.

A singular subject needs a singular verb; a plural subject needs a plural verb. Watch out; it can be tricky!

verb verb verb subject prepositional ph.(There’s, There are, There is) two cats in the room.

subject –prepositional phrase-- -----verb----- direct objectOne of the little kittens (have, has) black stripes.

Sometimes the verb comes before the subject…

Don’t confuse the subject with a prepositional phrase that comes after it!


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

With Either…or… and Neither…nor…, we look at the subject closest to the verb to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb.

Either a stick or some leaves (has, have) blown into the air conditioning unit.

Neither my parents nor my brother (is, are) moving to Canada.

Both…and… is always plural because it is like adding two and two!

Both my parents and my brother (is, are) coming to my game tonight.


Pass gum 3 1 b use correct subject verb agreement1

PASS GUM 3.1.b.Use correct subject-verb agreement.

subject subject --------verb------ direct objectEither kitty or puppy (want, wants) its food.

subject subject ---------verb------------Neither the cats nor the dog (behave, behaves) properly.

puppy (singular) wants (singular)

dog (singular) behaves (singular)


Pass gum 3 1 b use correct subject verb agreement2

PASS GUM 3.1.b.Use correct subject-verb agreement.

Now you try:

Both the cats and the dog (behave, behaves) well.

Either the dog or the cats (have, has) torn up the carpet.


Pass gum 3 1 b use correct subject verb agreement3

PASS GUM 3.1.b.Use correct subject-verb agreement.

“Both…and…” =

plural.

It’s like math.

“Both…and…” =

“They.”

Both the catsand the dog (behave, behaves) well.

“Either…or…” =

singular or plural,

depending on what

comes right

before the

verb.

Either the dogor the cats (have, has)

torn up the carpet.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules.

Use a comma before

and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet

when they join independent clauses.

That is what is called a “compound sentence.”

Do not use a comma to separate “compound verbs.”

Compound sentence?

Compound verbs? What’s the difference?


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules.

Compound Sentence: Two independent clauses joined by a conjunction: and but or not for so yet

subject verb dir. obj. conj. subject verb dir. obj.Kitty ate her food, but Puppy ate the sofa.

See? Independent clause (Kitty ate her food) - then a comma and conjunction - (,but) -

then independent clause (Puppy ate the sofa).


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Write simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. Observe comma and semicolon rules.

Compound Verb:

Two verbs separated by a conjunction

With two verbs – no comma (Puppy ran and bit.)

With more than two verbs – use the “items in a series” rule (Puppy ran, jumped, and bit.)

subject verb direct object verb Puppy ate the cushions on the sofa and tore the direct objectbedspread to pieces.

See? No comma! This is not a compound sentence! It is just a sentence with a compound verb!


Pass gum 3 3 d identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing.

Parallel structure – The use of the same grammatical forms to balance related ideas in a sentence

Look, people, it’s easy.

If you have two of anything, and the first one ends in –ing, make the second one end in –ing.

That’s all there is to it.

BAD: To type accurately is more important than typing speedily.

GOOD: Typing accurately is more important than typing speedily.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing.

No, it’s not just –ing!

Just make them look alike in any way!

It might be a phrase beginning with to. It might be a phrase beginning with a word ending in –ed. It doesn’t matter; just make “like parts” look alike.

Candy fans argue loudly and without end about what the best candy bar is.

Can you tell which two “like parts” do not match?

Do you know what to do to fix the problem?


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing.

Candy fans argue loudly and endlessly about what the best candy bar is.

Snickers!

Twix!

I love writing poetry, hiking in the mountains, cooking gourmet meals, and when I read good books it’s great.

Now, you try this one.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing.

I love writing poetry, hiking in the mountains, cooking gourmet meals, and when I read good books it’s great.

Did you figure out what’s not parallel? Right! The sentence says, “I love…” three –ing things: writing, hiking, and cooking… The only “out of parallel” thing is the last item.

I love writing poetry, hiking in the mountains, cooking gourmet meals, and reading good books.


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

PASS GUM 3.3.d.Identify and correct faulty parallel structure in writing.

Revise these sentences that have parallel structure problems.

1. After they watch the Olympics on television, people are more interested in participating in competitive swimming, volleyball, and everyone loves gymnastics of course. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. A show dog’s attitude, fitness, and what he looks like determine how he will place in competition.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Sixth grade english benchmark period two grammar usage and mechanics pass standards and objectives

See you later!


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