Gary L. Cates, Ph.D. Mark E. Swerdlik, Ph.D Illinois State University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university
1 / 148

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Improving Outcomes for ALL Students Through the Flexible Student Services Model (FSSM) : Building the Infrastructure--Effective Problem Solving and Review of Effective Interventions. Gary L. Cates, Ph.D. Mark E. Swerdlik, Ph.D Illinois State University.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Gary L. Cates, Ph.D. Mark E. Swerdlik, Ph.D Illinois State University

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Improving Outcomes for ALL Students Through the Flexible Student Services Model (FSSM) : Building the Infrastructure--Effective Problem Solving and Review of Effective Interventions

Gary L. Cates, Ph.D.

Mark E. Swerdlik, Ph.D

Illinois State University

Kirkwood, Mehlville, Special School District, Webster Groves (KMSW) Cooperative

“Expect the Best”

Responses to parking lot will be available on fssm website http www ilstu edu glcates fssm html

Responses to Parking Lot: Will Be Available on FSSM Website <>

Overview of your day morning

Overview of Your Day-Morning

  • AM Before Break-Structuring your Team/Effective Problem Solving and Operating Procedures (for Beginning Level Teams) OR Activity of Practice Problem Solving (for Advanced or Intermediate Teams . If unsure-divide up your team)

  • AM After Break-Communication Skills for Effective Problem Solving and Activity-Viewing of Two Problem Solving Teams

Overview of your day afternoon

Overview of Your Day-Afternoon

  • Whole-Group Activity-Inventory of Current Interventions being used at Tiers I, II, and III in your building and Assessment of Gaps

  • Divide Team Members between Break-Out Groups Addressing:

  • Reading Interventions OR Interventions for Behavior

  • Math Interventions OR Interventions for Written Language/Spelling

  • Whole Group Closing Activity

Objectives structuring your team effective operating procedures module

Objectives-Structuring Your Team/Effective Operating Procedures Module

  • Learn the who, what, when, where and how of problem-solving teams and evaluate your team in these areas.

  • Understand how to facilitate a problem-solving team meeting so that the process is completed with integrity.

  • Consider a plan to evaluate the outcomes of your problem solving process.

The pre requisites

The Pre-Requisites

  • Who?Team Membership

  • What?Roles and Responsibilities

  • When? Meeting Time

  • Where?Meeting Location

  • How?Process/Operating Procedures

  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of your Team

Who team membership what does the research tell us

WHO?: Team Membership-What does the Research Tell Us?

  • 4-8 People.

  • Representation:

    • Requesting teacher

    • Grade level representation

    • Balanced representation of ALL building staff including general education teacher(s) as permanent member(s) of the team, special service personnel such as school psychologist and social workers, and counselor

    • Principal / Administrator

    • Parent(s)

    • Not all representing special education

  • Constant Membership for most but can invite individuals with particular areas of expertise depending on needs of individual child.

More experienced vs less experienced team members

More Experienced vs.. Less Experienced Team Members?

  • More recent graduates may be more informed about the problem solving process for developing interventions

  • More experienced team members may possess expert knowledge helpful in data collection and exploration of more effective solutions

  • Combination of less and more experienced is best choice.

  • Include team members that are not as entrenched in “test and place” forms of problem solving or willing to learn new content and process of problem solving for interventions

What roles and responsibilities

WHAT?: Roles and Responsibilities

  • Principal / Administrator

  • Timekeeper

  • Note Taker

  • Case (Data) Manager

  • Teacher Requesting Assistance

  • Facilitator

  • Parent Advocate

  • All Team Members

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Principal / Administrator

  • What they do: Ensures implementation

    of the problem-solving process.

    Attends all meetings. Responsible for the allocation of resources. Monitors staff climate. Communicates the importance of the initiative to staff, that use of the problem solving team by the teacher is a highly professional action not a sign of teacher failure, and that in-class interventions need to be thoroughly implemented before special education eligibility can be considered.

  • Characteristics: Willing to take risks. Prioritizes students’ needs.

  • Tips: May have another role on the team.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


  • What they do: Keeps the team on track by making the time and time limits public.

  • Characteristics: Assertive

  • Tips: May have another role, such as note taker. Establish time limits before meeting.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Time Keeping Supports

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Note Taker

  • What they do: Responsible for documenting the meeting on designated forms. Should verbally summarize information when necessary and alert the team when a step has been skipped.

  • Characteristics: Detail oriented, stays on task, knows steps of problem solving.

  • Tips: Make notes public using technology. Use forms to guide note taking.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Case (Data) Manager

  • What they do: Responsible for communicating with parents and teachers. Ensures that the designated data are collected and summarized for the meetings (problem-solving and follow-up) and that the intervention is being implemented.

  • Characteristics: Organized, good interpersonal skills.

  • Tips: Helpful to have written guidelines for those acting as case managers. Rotate this role among several people and can be assigned based on skills and interest.

Preparing prior to the meeting

Preparing Prior to the Meeting?

  • Helps in staying within the established time limits. Team can spend more time in defining and analyzing the problem and developing a plan.

  • Appoint the Case Manager prior to first problem solving meeting who will collect the following:

  • Document the reason for referral

  • Review records

  • Assist the teacher in bringing helpful information to the meeting and interview the parents (will be video example).

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Teacher Requesting


  • What they do: Attend all meetings and help collect any necessary data. Involved in implementation of intervention. Communicates with parents that problem solving will be attempted and invites the parent(s) unless completed by Case Manager.

  • Characteristics: Aware of the problem-solving process.

  • Tips: They should not have another role during the meeting.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


  • What they do: Ensures the integrity of the process. Supports effective communication. Keeps team on track.

  • Characteristics: Very knowledgeable of the problem-solving process, possesses group process skills, assertive, a strong leader.

  • Tips: Not everyone makes a good facilitator.

    Those typically trained in group process skills include guidance counselors, school nurses, school psychologists, social workers, and educational consultants. Others can be trained if interested.

Parent s


  • Provides information as part of initial assessment, give input on selection of intervention strategies, and have participated in the final outcome decisions

  • Design interventions for parents to use at home as part of the overall plan

  • Provide parents with training in the instructional techniques most frequently utilized in the team process

  • Parents do not give up their due process rights under IDEA

Parent advocate

Parent Advocate

  • Not typically assigned but can be valuable

  • Make effort to be certain parent involvement occurs

  • Monitor parent reactions to proceedings

  • Insure parents’ rights are upheld

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

All Team Members

  • What they do: Participate during team meetings. Help collect data and implement interventions outside of the meetings.

  • Characteristics: Trained on the problem-solving process and related skills.

  • Tips: Not necessary for team members to know the student. All members should be committed to the success of the problem-solving process.

Team member participation research

Team Member Participation Research

  • Typically school psychologists and special educators provide a disproportionately larger input when compared to other members.

  • Classroom teachers and parents are less active participants.

  • Leads to less satisfaction with team decisions and less buy-in to plans

  • Need to redistribute power

  • Explicit knowledge of roles and expectations can mediate power imbalances

  • Can also structure communication so that members contribute in an organized manner. Teachers and parents are asked to contribute first and are provided with ample prompts and supports,. Additional members are called upon to contribute later.

When meeting time

WHEN?: Meeting Time

  • A consistent meeting time.

  • Use time efficiently.

  • Never do at a meeting what can be done at another time.

Where location

WHERE?: Location

  • Consistent meeting area.

  • Room should be comfortable for teaming (round or square table with everyone facing each other)

  • Should have access to confidential student files.

Team structure


Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Team Structure: Many

Roads to Rome…Is there too much work for any one team?

  • Data Analysis Team: Analyze school-wide data to determine effectiveness of Tier I interventions

  • Grade level teams (Cluster teams): Organized around particular grade levels

  • Pathway teams: Organized around multi-grade groupings of classes (i.e., a primary team for grades K-3, and intermediate team for grades 4-6)

  • Building Teams: One team for all grades in a particular building

  • Unit Teams: Organized around a physical unit of a school (i.e., house of a high school)

Procedural issues

Procedural Issues

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


  • Necessary for documenting information and should be aligned with your process.

  • Should be easy to follow and contain only the most useful information.

  • Some helpful forms:

    • Request for Assistance

    • Team Notification

    • Parent Notification

    • Documentation of Problem-Solving Steps

    • Intervention Articulation Form

    • Data Collection

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Request for Assistance

  • Determines a course of action to be taken when a teacher identifies a problem

  • Questions to consider

    • How will teachers/staff refer a problem to the team?

    • How is the team notified about new cases/meeting agendas?

    • If you have a dual system, (e.g., a problem solving team and a child study team-special education) consider criteria for bringing cases to either team.

    • How are roles and responsibilities assigned (permanent or rotating?)

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


  • Request for Assistance to Problem-Solving meeting: 1-2 weeks for team to collect Problem Identification and Analysis data.

  • A member of Problem-Solving team should meet with implementer of an intervention the first 2 days of implementation and follow-up weekly.

  • Follow-up meeting should be scheduled at initial Problem-Solving meeting based on individual student case and progress monitoring data should be collected weekly.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Creating a manual

  • Manual should be created to ensure long-term implementation and institution of the process.

  • Includes:

    • Mission Statement

    • Visual of school’s process

    • Logistics (e.g., meeting time, roles and responsibilities, team membership)

    • Forms

  • Usually a summer project for team.

Switching gears

Switching Gears

Evaluating problem solving outcomes

Evaluating Problem-Solving Outcomes

  • Importance of evaluating outcomes

  • What to evaluate

    • The process

    • Consumer satisfaction

    • Student Outcomes

  • When to evaluate

    • Formative vs. summative outcomes

Importance of evaluating outcomes

Importance of Evaluating Outcomes

  • Accountability

    • No Child Left Behind and other similar legislation

    • Appropriate use of resources

  • Progress Monitoring of Problem Solving Implementation

    • Ensuring that the problem solving process that you have implemented is effective.

    • Goal of problem solving is to improve outcomes for students

    • Formative evaluation tells us where we can improve to reach our goal

2 what to evaluate

2. What to evaluate?

  • Process

  • Consumer Satisfaction

  • Student Outcomes

Process data

Process Data

Examples of questions answered by “process” data:

  • How many staff are trained?

  • Who are we serving?

  • What types of problems are we addressing?

  • Are we implementing the process with integrity?

  • What is the quality of our implementation?

  • Do we have all of the recommended components?

  • Are interventions being implemented with integrity?

  • How are we doing with the facilitation of meetings?

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university



School_______ Case__________ Reviewer___________ Date______

Consumer satisfaction

Consumer Satisfaction

  • Parent Survey

  • Staff Survey

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Parent Satisfaction Survey


Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Staff Satisfaction

Examples of open-ended questions that may be asked of staff:

  • If you used PST this year, what do you think worked well?

  • What could be improved?

  • If you did not use PST, tell us why.

  • What are some suggestions you have to make PST more effective?

  • Other comments:

Student outcomes

Student Outcomes

  • Whole school/grade

    student outcomes

  • Individual Student Outcomes

3 when to evaluate

3. When to Evaluate

  • Formative Evaluation

    • Formative data collection allows you to make decisions and change your practice throughout the school year.

  • Summative Evaluation

    • Allows you to make conclusions about the success of your efforts at the end of the year.

Give some thought to

Give Some Thought to-

  • Create or evaluate the following

    about your problem-solving team(s) in your building:

    Who? Team Membership

    What?Roles and Responsibilities

    When? Meeting Time

    Where? Location

    How?Request for Assistance

    Team Structure




    How you will evaluate the effectiveness of your team?

Thank your for your attention

Thank Your for Your Attention

Please Return to the Large Group

Activity swap meet

Activity: Swap Meet

Refer for Swap Meet/Cross-Team Sharing Handout for Topics to Address

Please Count-Off by 4’s

It s lotto time

It’s Lotto Time!

Communication skills for effective problem solving and common pitfalls in the process

Communication Skills for Effective Problem Solving and Common Pitfalls in the Process

Facilitating group communication

Facilitating Group Communication

  • Facilitation: “to make easy or easier”.

  • Group leader to facilitate means to assist, encourage, foster, and support group members in order to make it easier for them to participate successfully in the group.

Group facilitation skills

Group Facilitation Skills

  • Active Listening-foundation techniques include listening for both facts and beyond the facts for feelings, attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs Let people know they are being heard, understood, and encouraged to say more.

  • Clarify

  • Reflect

  • Encourage

  • Summarize

  • Validate

  • Explore Implications

Group facilitation skills1

Group Facilitation Skills

  • Seeking Clarity

  • Use open-ended questions that can’t be answered yes or no

  • Ask someone to clarify his/her comment

  • Ask others to express their thoughts on a comment someone else made

Encouraging group participation

Encouraging Group Participation

  • Effective group leaders and members assure that each group member has a chance to participate

  • Encourage quieter group members to get involved but also keeps more active members from taking overt

  • Including

  • Affirming

  • Extending

Encouraging group participation1

Encouraging Group Participation

  • Refocusing (getting a discussion back on track, ending a discussion, or keeping a discussion appropriate).

  • Limit setting (gently letting the group know it is time to stop)

  • Intervening-stronger than limit setting. Use on rare occasions to stop potentially destructive behaviors such as ganging up on one group member, breaking confidentiality, bullying a group member. Use as little force as necessary..

Group decision making

Group Decision Making

  • Brainstorming-Rules:

  • All ideas are welcome

  • It’s OK to piggyback on someone else’s idea

  • Ideas should be based on problem analysis data

  • Ideas should be research-based (as much as possible)

  • No negative comments, criticisms, or evaluations are allowed-just ideas

Brainstorming sorting down

Brainstorming: Sorting Down

  • Sorting down-Give each group member a certain number of votes (Vote for your top two picks)

  • Take a show of hands on each item (Raise your hand if student choices is one of your top picks)

  • Sort the list down to items that received the most votes (Four or more votes went to give choices and provide picture cues)

  • Repeat the process if you still need to reduce the total number of ideas.

  • Teacher should recognize he/she is not alone in implementing this intervention

Reaching consensus

Reaching Consensus

  • Consensus involves enabling a group to reach a decision that all can accept

  • Tell what the options are, after brainstorming, or when the solutions have been sorted down to a couple of options.

  • If disagreement, ask each group member to share his or her thoughts, ideas, or feelings or simply invite comments from the group.

Reaching consensus1

Reaching Consensus

  • If the group reaches an impasse, try one of the ideas for awhile, then evaluate it, and come up with a compromise. Avoid pressuring to accept.

Techniques to avoid in leading a group

Techniques to Avoid in Leading a Group

  • Ordering, directing, commanding,

  • Warning, admonishing, threatening

  • Exhorting, preaching, moralizing

  • Giving solutions

  • Judging, criticizing, blaming,

  • Name calling, ridiculing, shaming

  • Interpreting, diagnosing, psychoanalyzing

Potential potholes on the road pitfalls to problem solving how to navigate around them

Potential Potholes on the Road/Pitfalls to Problem-Solving& How to Navigate Around Them

Before the meeting starts

Before the Meeting Starts

  • What you want to have happen…

    • School staff and parents to all be aware of the purpose and processes of the problem-solving team and know how to access it.

    • The team members to be fully prepared for the problem-solving meeting (I.e., come having collected and reviewed RIOT data).

  • What can go wrong…

    • School parents and staff do not understand problem-solving or how to access the team.

    • Data has not been collected and/or distributed prior to the problem-solving meeting.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

How to stay on track

when preparing for the meeting…

  • Present regularly to staff members about the problem-solving initiative (booster session each fall).

  • Provide all parents with brochures about problem solving at the beginning of the year.

  • Put a system in place for making sure that data are collected and distributed prior to meeting (e.g., Case manager assigns data collection duties).

At the start of the meeting

At the Start of the Meeting

  • Make the purpose of the meeting explicit

  • Next introduce and clarify the steps of problem solving orally and in written form.

  • Point out as the team engages in each problem solving step

  • Provide team members with copies of interview questions that will be asked during problem identification, problem definition, and each subsequent phase.

  • Remind team members that referral sources (teacher and/or parent) will be asked for input first.

Step 1 problem identification

Step 1: Problem Identification

  • What you want to have happen…

    • Identify and define a discrepancy between what is expected (typical peer performance) and what is occurring.

  • What can go wrong…

    • Cannot select one problem to focus on.

    • Cannot empirically quantify the behavior.

    • Cannot establish ‘typical peer’ behavior.

    • “Admiring the problem”.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

  • What can go wrong-Problem Analysis

    • Don’t consider appropriate variables

      • Choosing variables you can’t change.

      • Focus solely on ‘kid’ factors.

    • Get ‘stuck’ searching for the cause

      • Do you collect all data first, or make a plan & test it?

    • The Filibuster

      • Individual team members focused on their own agenda.

    • Problem analysis is skipped altogether

      • After identifying problem, team members start to generate solutions

    • Hypotheses selected are not supported

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

How to stay on track

during Problem Identification…

  • Interview the teacher before the meeting to allow for venting time and facilitate the description of the problem.

  • Proactively collect school-wide benchmark data.

  • Collect baseline data before meeting.

  • Prioritize keystone behaviors.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

How to stay on track

during Problem Analysis (Step 2)…

  • Ensure consideration of multiple domains when generating hypotheses.

  • Insist that a hypothesis needs at least two supporting pieces of evidence (one must be quantitative).

  • Enforce the agenda.

  • Verbally redirect those that start to talk about solutions before selecting a hypothesis.

Step 3 plan development

Step 3: Plan Development

  • What you want to have happen…

    • Set a measurable goal.

    • Create a comprehensive intervention to address the goal.

    • Design a system by which to monitor progress.

  • What can go wrong…

    • Missing any one of the above steps.

    • Relying on Special Ed staff for all interventions.

    • Developing a plan that people won’t implement.

    • Developing an intervention that is not related to the selected hypothesis.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

How to stay on track

during Plan Development…

  • Don’t leave the meeting without the current level of performance and the aimline to the goal drawn on a graph.

  • Skill development in interventions.

    • Training on ‘best practices’ for instruction.

    • Training on evaluating intervention research.

    • Training on interventions vs. consequences or accommodations.

  • Design interventions that target “keystone” behaviors, are easy to implement, and have the greatest likelihood of being successful.

Step 4 plan implementation

Step 4: Plan Implementation

  • What you want to have happen…

    • Plan to be implemented as it was intended.

  • What can go wrong…

    • Intervention is not applied with integrity:

      • Deviation from the intended plan.

      • Not intended frequency, intensity, or duration.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

How to stay on track

during Plan Implementation…

  • Assign a case manager:

    • Check in within 2-days of start of a new intervention.

  • Involve more than one person in implementation.

  • Utilize implementation integrity checklists.

Step 5 plan evaluation

Step 5: Plan Evaluation

  • What you want to have happen…

    • Team to evaluate student progress monitoring data to determine efficacy of plan.

  • What can go wrong…

    • Making decisions about effectiveness without data.

    • “Evaluating” a plan that was not implemented with integrity.

    • Plan effectiveness is never formally evaluated.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

How to stay on track

during Plan Evaluation…

  • Set date for evaluation meeting at the problem-solving meeting.

  • Check with case manager before evaluation meeting to be sure there will be data to evaluate.

  • Be sure criteria for success is predetermined.

  • Start evaluation meeting by looking at the graph.

As prepare to view videos of problem solving teams steps of problem solving

As Prepare to View Videos of Problem Solving Teams-Steps of Problem-Solving

1. Problem


2. Problem


5. Plan


3. Plan


4. Plan


Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Activity: View this Example of a Less than Effective Team.List what you find is less effective about their team process (refer to your Team Observation Sheet)

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Activity: View This Tape of a Case (Data) Manager Interviewing a Teacher. Note to yourselves what are effective and ineffective aspects of the interview.

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Activity: Observe this Next Team Meeting Using Your Team Process Rating Form. Rate the team on each of the dimensions (Areas 1-4)

Lotto time

Lotto Time!!!

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Research Supported Interventions As Part of the Three Tiers-Includes both Academically and Behaviorally Focused Problems

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


Tertiary Prevention:



Systems for High-Risk Students








Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for At-Risk Students



Primary Prevention:


Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students



  • 1) In your teams, make a list of what programs (standard protocol treatments)/interventions you have in place in your building and what resources you have available to implement them.

  • 2) What gaps exist? Anticipate needs at different tiers based on referrals to your problem solving teams over the past 1-2 years.

  • Organize your list into three columns-Tier I (Universal), II (Targeted) and III (Intensive) and include programs/interventions for both academic and behavioral concerns. Leave space in your columns to add types of interventions you become aware of during break-out session that you want to explore further.

What are scientifically based interventions what works clearinghouse

What are Scientifically Based Interventions (What Works Clearinghouse)?

  • Employs systematic, empirical methods

  • Ensures that studies and methods are presented in sufficient detail and clarity

  • Obtains acceptance by a peer-reviewed journal or approval by a panel of independent experts through scientific review

  • Uses research designs and methods appropriate to the research question

Selecting research based strategies

Selecting Research-Based Strategies

  • Maalox Approach -attempt high-probability strategies that have demonstrated research support and are likely to show quick and effective results before conducting lengthy evaluations that may not lead to beneficial interventions.

Useful websites see handout


  • (Flexible Services Delivery System)

  • (Aimsweb)

  • (Florida Center for Reading Research)

  • (Big Ideas in Reading)


    (Un. of Virginia – PALS page – instructional strategies:)

  • (intervention central)

  • (What Works Clearinghouse)

  • More detailed descriptions of FSSM interventions discussed during break-out sessions including additional readings posted on:<

Break out sessions

Break-Out Sessions

  • Please divide up your team among the following break-out sessions addressing research supported interventions in the following areas:

  • 1:00-2:00 Interventions for Reading OR Behavior

  • 2:15-3:00 Interventions for Math OR Written Language/Spelling

Reading interventions

Reading Interventions

5 big areas of reading based on 30 years of research

5 Big Areas of Reading Based on 30 Years of Research

  • Phonemic Awareness (PA):

  • Phonics (P)

  • Fluency (F)

  • Vocabulary (V)

  • Comprehension ( C )

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


Curricular Breadth

Example of 3-Tier Level Interventions


Tier I

Tier 3

Tier 2




Curricular Focus

5 areas

Less than 5

2 or less










Frequency of Progress Monitoring

3X Yearly or greater

Monthly or greater


Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

Things to keep in mind about interventions…

  • Intensive and focused – it should give struggling readers a chance to practice a limited set of skills with immediate corrective feedback.

  • Intervention is in addition to core reading program!

  • Intervention starts at the lowest skill that is deficient then moves up the continuum as children reach automaticity and mastery

    • Example: Focus on student’s proficiency with recognizing and expressing initial sounds before teaching segmentation of all sounds in words

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


Benchmark/Core Programs (Elem):

1.Rigby Literacy (Harcourt Rigby Education, 2000)

2.Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)*

3.The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)

4.Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)

5.Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)*

6.Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/

McGraw-Hill, 2002)

7.Scott Foresman Reading (2004)

8.Success For All (1998-2003)

Wright Group Literacy (2002)

Read Well*

Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First and FCRR

Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas

and included at least grades K-3



~80% of Students

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


( Middle and High School)

Building Continuously Improving General Education Instruction

Use of Teaching Routines and Learning Strategies(Kansas)

Well Designed Curriculum with

“Big Idea”


Effective Secondary Classroom


Study and Organizational Skills

Curriculum Modification



~80% of Students

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


Strategic/Supplemental (Elementary):

1.Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin)

2. Reading Mastery (SRA)

3.6 Minute Solutions-F

4.Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)*PA,P, F,

5.REWARDS (Sopris West)*P, F

6Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)

7.Read Naturally *-F

8. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies:

KPALS (PA, P) and PALS*-, F

Earobics* (Tier III too)-PA

Project READ* (Tier III too)



~80% of Students

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


Strategic/Supplemental (Middle School):

1.Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin)

2. Reading Mastery (SRA)

Early Reading Intervention (Scott Foresman)

Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)*-P

5.REWARDS (Sopris West)*-P

6Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)

7.Read Naturally *-F

8. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)*-F



~80% of Students

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


Strategic/Supplemental (High School):

Consultation Support



~80% of Students

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

TIER 3: INTENSIVE Intervention (Elementary)

1.Corrective Reading (SRA)*

2.Language! (Sopris West)

3.Wilson Reading System* (Tier 2 also)

4.Reading Mastery

5.Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness; Cognitive Concepts)

6.Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency) (Tier II also)

7.REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in Plus Program)

Soar to Success (comp.)

Wilson Reading Program*

Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing Reading Curriculum*



~80% of Students

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university

TIER 3: INTENSIVE Intervention (Middle School and High School)

Corrective Reading (SRA)*

Failure Free Reading*Language! (Sopris West)

Wilson Reading System*

Reading Mastery

5.Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness; Cognitive Concepts)

Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency)

REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in Plus Program)

Soar to Success (comp.)

Lindamood-Bell Programs* (Phonics)

Spell-Read P.A.T*



~80% of Students

Acquisition letter or sound naming bingo

Acquisition-Letter or Sound Naming Bingo

  • A fun way to teach letter names or letter-sounds

  • Make copies of bingo cards and the picture and letter-squares

  • If the student draws the picture square, the student names the picture and gives the first letter of the name. Any student who has that letter on his or or card, should place a bingo chip on it.

  • If a letter square is drawn, without showing the students the card, read the letter name to the student. Any student with that letter on their card should place a bingo chip on it.

Letter name acquisition discrete trial learning

Letter Name Acquisition-Discrete Trial Learning

  • Give the student an unknown letter-name probe.

  • Two Known letter cards and 1 unknown letter cards are placed in front of the student

  • Tell the student to point to the unknown card.

  • A) If the correct letter is named, the cards are mixed and placed in front of the student who is asked to point to the unknown letter again. When the student is able to correctly point to the unknown letter five times the letter becomes known.

Letter name acquisition discrete trial learning1

Letter Name Acquisition-Discrete Trial Learning

  • Then, one of the original known cards is removed leaving the new known card and the old known card . Finally a new unknown card is added to the grouping.

    B) If an incorrect letter is named, the student is told the correct name and asked to repeat the correct letter name. Then the cards are mixed and placed in the front of the student again. The examiner asks the student to point to the unknown letter.

  • Steps 2 & 3 are repeated until all of the unknown cards are considered known

Letter naming listening passage preview

Letter Naming-Listening Passage Preview

  • Place the Letter naming probe in front of the student.

  • Explain that the examiner will read the probe to them before the student is allowed to read it to them. May need to point to each letter as they read the probe in order to keep the student’s attention

  • Read the probe correctly

  • Allow the student to read the probe and note any errors.

  • Repeat with different probes as often as desired.

Research based interventions reading fluency repeated reading

Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency Repeated Reading

  • Objectives: To increase fluent reading on passages students read with high accuracy

  • In repeated readings of the same passage, the student tries to beat his/her previous score (errors and rate)

  • Materials: Texts that the student can read with at least 95% accuracy

Research based interventions reading fluency duet reading

Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency Duet Reading

  • Objective/Method: To increase fluent reading particularly for students who lose their spot or just don’t get to the next word quickly enough. First Reading-student reads a passage aloud. Second Reading-Teacher and student take turns reading EVERY OTHER WORD. Third Reading-Student reads the entire passage alone

  • Materials: Short texts that the student can read with at least 95% accuracy

Research based interventions reading fluency newscaster reading

Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency-Newscaster Reading

  • Objective: To increase prosody (expression) for students who have difficulty with phrasing and expression

  • Materials: Short texts at the student’s instructional level (can read with at least 95% accuracy)

Research based interventions reading fluency newscaster reading1

Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency-Newscaster Reading

  • Teacher reads with excellent expression-just slightly (about 10%) faster then the student reads.

  • If the student doesn’t keep going with your voice, say “uh, oh, keep your voice with mine and start again until they keep up”.

Research based interventions reading fluency partner reading

Research Based Interventions-Reading Fluency-Partner Reading

  • Objective: Given a selected text, students will increase fluency by rereading it.

  • Materials: Copies of short texts at lower-performing reader’s instructional level for each pair of participating students.

  • This can be a whole class intervention (Tier I)

Sentence repeat fluency

Sentence Repeat (Fluency)

  • At the start of the reading session, student is told, “If you come to a word that you do not know, I will help you with it. I will tell you the correct word while you listen and point to the word in the book. After that, I want you repeat the word and then read the rest of the sentence. Than I want you to read the sentence again. Try to best not to make mistakes”.

Research based interventions self monitoring pencil tap

Research Based Interventions-Self-Monitoring-Pencil Tap

  • Objective: To increase self-monitoring and self-correction of errors in reading among students who read with low accuracy.

  • Materials: Short texts at the student’s instructional level

Carbo methods fluency

Carbo Methods-Fluency

  • Method to record books to achieve maximum gains in fluency.

  • Record 5-15 minutes at a typical pace for instructional level material and have student listen to the tape once. For difficult material, record no longer than 2 minutes at a slow pace with good expressions and student listens 2-3 times.

  • After listening, student reads the passage outloud.

Word attack hierarchy phonics

Word Attack Hierarchy (Phonics)

  • Instructor prompts the student to apply a hierarchy of word-attack skills whenever the student misreads a word. The instructor gives these cues in descending order. If the student correctly identifies the words after any cue, the instructor stops delivering cues at that point and directs the student to continue reading. Do not correct minor errors (e.g., misreading or dropping the or a, dropping suffixes such as -s, -ed, -ing.

Comprehension prior knowledge activating the known

Comprehension-Prior Knowledge: Activating the Known

  • Through a series of guided questions, the instructor helps the student activate their prior knowledge of a specific topic to help them comprehend the content of a story or article on the same topic.

Comprehension prior knowledge reciprocal teaching

Comprehension-Prior Knowledge: Reciprocal Teaching

  • This intervention package teaches students to use reading comprehension strategies independently including text prediction, summarization, question generation, and clarification of unknown or unclear content.

Comprehension text lookback

Comprehension-Text Lookback

  • Text lookback is a strategy that students can use to boost their recall of expository prose by looking back in the text for important information.

  • Student write lookback questions for assigned readings.

  • Must teach skimming to be effective

Comprehension click or clack omitted from your outline

Comprehension: Click or Clack (omitted from your outline)

  • Students periodically check their understanding of sentences, paragraphs, and pages of text as they read. When students encounter problems with vocabulary or comprehension, they use a checklist to apply simple strategies to solve these reading difficulties.

Comprehension click or clack

Comprehension: Click or Clack

  • During any reading assignment, when come to:

  • End of a sentence ask the question, “Did I understand this sentence”? If the student understands, he/she says “click” and continues reading. If they do not understand, they say “clack”: and refer to My Reading Checklist to correct the problem.

Comprehension click or clack1

Comprehension: Click or Clack

  • When the student reaches the end of each paragraph, they should ask themselves what did the paragraph say. If they understand, they say, “Click:” If not,they say, “clack” and they do not continue reading and refer to their reading checklist.

  • When the student reaches the end of a page, they ask themselves “What do I remember”? If they remember they say, “click”. If they do not remember, they say “clack” and refer to the study sheet.

Reading comprehension mental imagery improving text recall

Reading Comprehension-Mental Imagery: Improving Text Recall

  • By constructing “mental pictures” of what they are reading and closely studying text illustrations, students increase they reading comprehension

  • In teaching, read aloud and ask class what mental pictures come to mind as they read

  • Independently students are reminded to “make a picture in your head about what you are reading and study the pictures carefully”.

Other reading comprehension interventions

Other Reading Comprehension Interventions

  • Generating questions: Who what where why when and how

  • SQ3R: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Restate

  • POSSE: Predict, Organize, Search, Summarize, and Evaluate



  • In this mnemonic (memorization) technique, students select the central idea of a passage and summarize it as a 'keyword'. Next, they recode the keyword as a mental picture and use additional mental imagery to relate other important facts to the keyword. They can then recall the keyword when needed, retrieving the related information



  • Number of other useful resources will be listed on website

Other interventions in resource i ve dibeled now what and blachman et al the road to the code

Other Interventions in Resource-I’ve DIBELED Now What ?and Blachman, , The Road to the Code ?

  • Phonemic Awareness

  • Phonics

  • Vocabulary

  • Comprehension

Writing and spelling

Writing and Spelling

  • More detailed descriptions and supporting research articles available on FSSM website

  • Not as much empirically supported Tier I, II, and III programs/interventions available in Writing and Spelling as In Reading (particularly) and Math

Written language tier i

Written Language-Tier I

  • Kansas University-Center for Research on Learning Strategy Instruction Model

  • Teach specific learning strategies in following areas:

  • Sentence Writing Fundamentals

  • Proficiency

  • Paragraph Writing Strategy

  • Theme Writing Fundamentals

  • Error Monitoring Strategy

  • InSPECT Strategy (for words processing spellcheckers)

Written language tier i or ii

Written Language-Tier I or II

  • SRA Expressive Writing (grades 4-6)

  • Sequenced Lessons

  • Includes 4 instructional strands (mechanics, sentence writing, paragraph and story writing and editing)

  • Check System (helps students become efficient at editing and revising their work)

  • Extensive practice-encourages students to apply grammar rules and style

Written language tier i or ii1

Written Language: Tier I or II

  • Peer Assisted Learning System (PALS) for Writing

  • Use of peers to assist younger students with learning written language skills

Written language tier i or ii2

Written Language-Tier I or II

  • SRA High Performance Writing

  • Grades 1-6

  • Lessons to provide scaffolding to help internalize the writing process and become independent writers

Focus on improving writing fluency

Focus on Improving Writing Fluency

  • Tiers I or II

  • Journal writing-write daily minimum of 15 minutes including minimum of one written page on a subject of student’s choice. Lower requirements for extremely non-fluent writers.

  • Written Conversation-Two people (student-student or student-teacher) “talk” to each other about topic of interest.They sit next to each other,exchanging the paper when ready for the next person’s response. Activity encourages student to focus on ideas and written rapidly so he/she can respond quickly to partner’s conversation.

Tier ii writing program not on outline

Tier II-Writing Program (Not on Outline)

  • King, D.H. (1985)

  • Writing Skills 1

  • Writing Skills 2

  • Writing skills for the Adolescent

  • Cursive Writing Skills

  • Keyboarding Skills

  • All published by: Educator’s Publishing Service, Cambridge, MA.

Focus on writing fluency

Focus on Writing Fluency

  • Tiers I, II and III

  • Mind Mapping-Mind Mapping or spider diagrams are a useful way of recoding information. Either used for revisions or for encouraging processing of information into chunks.

Focus on writing fluency1

Focus on Writing Fluency

  • Planning Strategy

  • 1) Think Who, What?

  • 2) Use C-Space to take notes (C=Characters, S=Setting, P=Problem or Purpose, A=Action, C=Conclusion, E=Emotion) to generate content and make notes

  • 3) Write and Say More

Focus on writing fluency2

Focus on Writing Fluency

  • Writing Conferencing-Goal is to support and extend what students are able to do on their own and to reflect on and become more aware of their own writing processes. Teachers listen responsively as students read and talk about their writing.

Focus on writing fluency3

Focus on Writing Fluency

  • Word Processing-Computers are powerful and flexible tools for writing. Especially helpful when handwriting impedes fluency.

Writing strategies

Writing Strategies

  • What writing strategies have you found effective?

Spelling tiers ii and iii

Spelling-Tiers II and III

  • Cover Copy Compare-Worksheets are prepared with correctly spelled words are listed on the left of the page with space on the right for the student to spell each word. Student is instructed to cover the correct model on the left side of the page with an index card and to spell the word on the right side of the paper. The student then uncovers the correct answer on the left to check his work.

  • Constant Time Delay-The time interval between the student being instructed to spell the word and the presentation of the model is systematically increased until the student emits the correct response before the model is presented. Begin with zero second delay. This gives the student an opportunity to respond before the presentation of the model or wait for the model if further prompting is needed.

Spelling 8 step method for pencil or computer practice multi sensory

Spelling -8 Step Method for Pencil or Computer Practice (Multi-Sensory)

  • Look carefully at the word while the tutor sweeps finger over and says it outloud

  • Watch and listen while tutor says sounds corresponding to color-coded graphemes in a left to right fashion (e.g., “/b/ /o/ /t/ while point to “b” “oa” and t.

  • Name letters as tutor points to letters

  • Close eyes and picture word in the “mind’s eye”

  • Keep eyes closed and spell the word out loud

Spelling 8 step method for pencil or computer practice multi sensory1

Spelling -8 Step Method for Pencil or Computer Practice (Multi-Sensory)

  • 6. With pencil, open eyes and write the word OR with computer, open eyes and point to letter on an alphabetical grid; then tutor points to the letter on the keyboard and child presses key.

  • 7. Compare spelling to target

  • 8. If incorrect, tutor points out where difference lies , then previous steps repeated.

Spelling error imitation and modeling

Spelling: Error Imitation and Modeling

  • When child makes an error, use this corrective feedback procedure:

  • 1. Imitate the child’s error by rewriting it.

  • 2. Then present the correct model (especially the case of non-phonetically-spelled words)

  • Need a sufficient number of trials

Spelling study techniques

Spelling:Study Techniques

  • 1. Propose a word to learn

  • 2. Correctly write the word or display the word with letter tiles

  • 3. Name the word

  • 4. Write the word.

  • 5. Name the word again, check accuracy, and continue steps 2-4 until mastery

  • 6. Practice the word in this way for 6 consecutive days

  • Use with interspersal (known and unknown words, use of positive practice and reinforcement

Spelling study techniques variations

Spelling:Study Techniques Variations

  • 1. Say the word

  • 2. Write the word

  • 3. Check the word

  • 4. Trace and say the word

  • 5. Write the word from memory and check

  • 6. If the word is incorrect, repeat steps in first 5 steps

Handwriting tiers ii and iii

Handwriting-Tiers II and III

  • Give student page with complete letters.

  • Give student a different colored pen or pencil to copy the letters

  • Use tracing as a form of fading as opposed to an intervention alone. Letter forms are better learned by copying than by tracing.

  • Do not use unsupervised practice of tracing responses such as join the dashed sections in traced letters using short lines rather than one continuous line.

Handwriting tiers ii and iii1

Handwriting-Tiers II and III

  • Cover-Copy-Compare using letters

  • Increase opportunities for responding-dictate letters or words and sentences the student is capable of spelling correctly. The student must write the them without models.

  • Use of reinforcement is important

Handwriting tiers ii or iii

Handwriting-Tiers II or III

  • Demonstration, Corrective Feedback, and Praise

  • Demonstrate how to form the letter. Use an identical stroke sequence during each demonstration

  • Give the student an opportunity to write the letter.

  • Provide the student with corrective feedback and praise. Tell the student how his or her her letters were formed correctly or incorrectly.

  • Provide student with praise or tangible reinforcers.

Handwriting tiers ii or iii1

Handwriting-Tiers II or III

  • Use of Chemical Inks-The student uses a special pen to copy on treated paper. When the student writes outside a zone on the paper, the ink changes colors.

  • Templates-Student writes on translucent paper. After writing a line of letters, the student places a template beneath the paper. The student assesses the degree to which his or her efforts were consistent with the model.

Handwriting tiers ii or iii2

Handwriting-Tiers II or III

  • Counteract Procedural Errors

  • The student uses a worksheet with a model at the top and space for several practices lines below. The models are individual manuscript or cursive letters, numerals, words, short sentences, or the students’ name, address or phone number. Student typically begins with letters but should move to meaningful sentences as soon as possible.

Counteract procedural errors continued

Counteract Procedural Errors(Continued)

  • 1) The student completes the first line and informs the teacher

  • 2) The teacher corrects by overmarking with a “high-lighter” (light-colored felt-tip marker). Letters which represent significant improvement are not corrected and the student is not required to repeat them. The teacher tries to incorporate as much as possible of the student’s efforts into his/her overworking.

  • 3) The student erases incorrect portions of letters and traces over the teacher’s overmarking. The student must trace the whole letter, not just the incorrect portions

Counteract procedural errors continued1

Counteract Procedural Errors(Continued)

  • 4) The student moves to the next line and the same procedure is followed except that the student repeats only the letters which had been corrected on the previous line.

Closing activity

Closing Activity

Based on the content you were exposed to in your break-out sessions, share what you learned and make a list of interventions/standard protocols your team wants to learn more about or plans to implement in the fall. What additional resources might you use to implement these programs?

It s lotto time1

It’s Lotto Time!

Gary l cates ph d mark e swerdlik ph d illinois state university


  • Insert Slides here

  • Login