Civil wars sierra leone el salvador
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Civil Wars: Sierra Leone & EL Salvador. By: Shannon Burke Samantha Wood and Klaus Luther. Define Development…. Development is viewed as the process of increasing national incomes and improving the quality of life of its citizens

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Civil Wars: Sierra Leone & EL Salvador

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Civil wars sierra leone el salvador

Civil Wars:Sierra Leone & EL Salvador

By:

Shannon Burke

Samantha Wood and

Klaus Luther


Define development

Define Development…

Development is viewed as the process of increasing national incomes and improving the quality of life of its citizens

(Sierra Leone is not a developed country according to this definition.)


Sierra leone

Sierra Leone


Background on sierra leone

Background onSierra Leone

  • Became independent April 27, 1961

  • Military coup overthrew civilian government in 1967… turned into civilian government 1 year later.

  • Declared republic April 19, 1971


After the coup in 1971

After the Coup in 1971

  • Sika Stevens (prime minister of Sierra Leone) asked Guinea to have arms in the country for 2 years


1996 oh my

1996… Oh My…

  • Military coup ousted military leader & president

  • Multiparty election took place, people elected Ahman Tejan Kabbah

  • First democratically elected leader


This is getting old

This is getting old!

  • Violent military coup ousted Kabbah’s government 1997

  • Leader of the Coup: Liet. Col. Johnny Paul Koroma

  • Became Head of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council


Koroma not so great

Koroma…not so great…

  • Began reign of terror

  • Destroyed economy & enemies

  • Commonwealth of Nations demanded the reinstatement of Kabbah

  • ECOMOG, Nigerian peace-keeping force, intervened.


Kabbah is back

Kabbah is back!

  • March 10, 1998- after 10 months in exile, Kabbah resumed power over Sierra Leone

  • Ousted junta & other rebels continued to wage attacks


Rebel s attack

Rebel’s Attack!

  • Attacks included: torture, rape, brutal maiming of thousands of civilians (including children) amputation by machete signature of the rebels

  • WHY??


Blood diamonds

Blood Diamonds

  • Rebels were supported by Charles Taylor

  • He just wanted to gain control of Sierra Leone’s rich diamond mines


January 1999

January 1999

  • Rebels demanded Foday Sankoh regain control of Freetown

  • Agreed to share power when pressured by US & Nigeria

  • Sankoh got control of diamond mines


After the conflict

After the Conflict

  • Declared officially over in 2000

  • Estimated 50,000 people killed in the decade-long civil war

  • 17,000 UN peace-keepers were installed


After the conflict continued

After the Conflict (continued)

  • President Kabbah reelected 2002 w/ 70% of the vote

  • 70,000 soldiers disarmed

  • UN war crimes tribunal opened

  • UN believes Sierra Leone is the “least livable country in the world”


El salvador

El Salvador


Beginnings

Beginnings

  • Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), formed 1960s created demonstrations to protest bad elections in 1972 &1977.

  • Most Salvadorians were peasants (Campesinos)


Government actions of late 1970s

Government Actions of late 1970s

  • Government declared state of siege to combat protests.

  • Suspended Constitutional rights.

  • Formed parliamentary ‘Death Squads’


Coup d tat in 1979

Coup d’état in 1979

  • The Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno (JRG) killed president Carlos Humberto Romero

  • They were inspired by left-wing politics and protecting the image of El Salvador


Death squad murders

Death Squad Murders

  • Archbishop Oscar Romero was murdered by death squad after asking the US to stop giving military aid

  • 40 mourners killed


Us involvement in war

US Involvement in War

  • President Ronald Reagan elected 1980

  • Viewed El Salvador as a place for communism to spread

  • Provided aid to Salvadorian Government


Increasing unrest

Increasing Unrest

  • Major Roberto D'Aubuisson arrested May 7, 1980

  • Farm raided & found evidence linking him to the Archbishop’s murder

  • UN Investigation found that he ordered the Archbishop killed.


Fmln comes into power

FMLN Comes into Power

  • FMLN: Leftist organizations & guerilla groups.

  • Lost battles, but gained strongholds.

  • FMLN not militarily successful, but turned the eye of the world to civil rights issues.


International community comes to action ends the war

International Community Comes to Action & Ends the War

  • 1989: murder of 6 Jesuit priests shocked international community

  • US Congress started investigating & found atrocities & lies.

  • 1992 signed Peace Accords, ending the war.


Works cited

Works Cited

GlobalSecurity. “El Salvador Civil War.” Global Security. 27 Apr. 2005. 3 June 2009 <http://www.globalsecurity.org////.htm>.

PBS. “Enemies of War: El Salvador Civil War.” Enemies of War. PBS. 3 June 2009 <http://www.pbs.org///.html>.

“Conflicto En Sierra Leone Desata Crisis Humanitaria.” BBC Mundo. 5 Oct. 2000. 3 June 2009 <http://www.bbc.co.uk.com>.

“Sierra Leone: History, Geography, Government, and Culture.” Infoplease.com. 2007. 3 June 2009 <http://www.infoplease.com>.


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