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DAYLIGHTING CONCEPTS. Mt. Angel Library by Alvar Aalto; featuring a major daylight “fixture”. Daylighting. Daylighting has always been of major importance, but somehow during the 1960s, we forgot everything we knew about the art and science of daylighting.

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Daylighting concepts

DAYLIGHTINGCONCEPTS

Mt. Angel Library by Alvar Aalto; featuring a major daylight “fixture”

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 1


Daylighting
Daylighting

Daylighting has always been of major

importance, but somehow during the

1960s, we forgot everything we knew

about the art and science of daylighting.

Cheap energy and air conditioning

did us in.

William Caudill in the Foreword to Daylight in Architecture

an example of the allure and power of active systems

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 2


^^ Kimbell Art Museum, Ft. Worth, TX

Mt. Angel Library, Mt. Angel, OR >>

daylighting offers great opportunities for creative design

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Daylight components
Daylight Components

The daylight reaching a given point within a

building generally consists of a mix of the

following components (which show up as elements in some design analysis methods):

-- a sky component (SC)

-- an externally reflected component (ERC) -- an internally reflected component (IRC)

these “internal” components are related to—but not the same as—the direct, diffuse,

and reflected resource components that comprise light falling on an aperture

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 4


Daylight components1
Daylight Components

DF = SC + ERC + IRC

the “sky” component is not the same as a “direct solar” component

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A daylighting design process
A Daylighting Design Process

  • Establish lighting system design intent and criteria

  • Daylighting may be a reasonable method to achieve intent

  • If so, select a likely daylighting implementation method

    (an approach or approaches)

  • Validate that the approach actually works (that the result meets intent and criteria) using appropriate design tools

  • Refine the initial design solution as required using appropriate analysis tools; validate the final design solution

  • Develop construction drawings and specifications

  • Commissioning the daylighting system design (critical)

  • Construct

  • Commissioning the daylighting system (especially controls)

  • Occupy building; validate system in place and in use; learn and communicate the lessons learned

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 6


Daylighting design issues
Daylighting Design Issues

  • The source of light is variable

    • addressed through the design process

    • addressed via coordination with electric lighting

    • addressed in usage by space occupants

  • The source of light is outside the building

    • light must be brought into a building

    • light must be skillfully distributed from an aperture located at the periphery of a space

  • These are primarily architectural design issues

    • architects must take the lead

    • daylighting potential is established with the first design moves (plan, orientation, and massing)

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General daylighting approaches
General Daylighting Approaches

  • Sidelighting

    • Unilateral or bilateral

    • Windows

    • Clerestories (if low)

  • Toplighting

    • Skylights

    • Clerestories (if high)

  • Hybrids and combinations

windows.lbl.gov/

www.inhabitat.com/

what about “bottomlighting”?

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Sidelighting if unilateral
Sidelighting (if unilateral)

illuminance (lux, FC or DF) on horizontal task plane

illuminance drops off fairly quickly as distance from aperture increases

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 9


Sidelighting if bilateral
Sidelighting (if bilateral)

illuminance drops off fairly quickly as distance from aperture increases;

but two opposing apertures help to balance light distribution across space

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Toplighting if single aperture
Toplighting (if single aperture)

illuminance drops off fairly quickly as distance from aperture increases

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Hybrid approaches
Hybrid Approaches

illuminance from skylight fills in “gap” caused by sidelight distribution pattern

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Daylighting system components
Daylighting System Components

  • Light source  the sky not direct sun

  • Apertures (openings—such as windows or skylights)

  • Aperture modifications (lightshelves, shading devices, glazings, jambs, …)

  • Space geometry (length, width, height of room)

  • Surface reflectances (of ceiling, walls, …)

  • The illuminated thing (task, surface, …)

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 13


Daylighting system components1
Daylighting System Components

  • Source (the sky  not direct solar)

    • On a macro scale this resource is a function of geographic locale and site conditions

  • Apertures (openings)

    • Are a function of design decisions (placement in building, size, number, orientation)

  • Aperture modifications (lightshelves, shading devices, glazings, …)

    • Are a function of design decisions

the site presents an opportunity that the designer can run with

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Daylighting system components2
Daylighting System Components

  • Space geometry

    • Is a function of design decisions  optimize space layout and use the space itself to help distribute light

  • Reflectances

    • Are function of design decisions  use reflective surface finishes to spread light

  • Illuminated thing (task, surface, …)

    • A function of space type and usage

… good daylighting design is good architectural design

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 15


More on daylighting glazing
More on Daylighting Glazing

  • Glazing location (orientation, tilt, surroundings) is important

  • Glazing area and DF are related in a generally linear manner

  • Usually, daylighting glazing should have a high VT (visible transmittance) and a low SHGC (solar heat gain coefficient)—characteristics that will be incompatible in many products

  • Generally daylighting should involve no direct solar radiation (provide shading devices to ensure this without blocking diffuse daylight)

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 16


More on lightshelves
More on Lightshelves

These elements are used with daylighting windows to more evenly distribute daylight in a space; they do not substantially increase the amount of daylight that is captured

  • They can be external, internal, or both

  • When used, they split a window area into “view” and “non-view” components

  • They can assist with shading against direct solar radiation (thus reducing heat gain and glare)

  • Performance is not well documented—lightshelf design is more an art than a science

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Lightshelves
Lightshelves

Inland Revenue (UK),

image from LBL

exterior lightshelves, Milwaukee, winter

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Daylighting Example

building context

campus context

Philips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH; Library, Louis Kahn (1967)

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façade texture and layers

building massing

Philips Exeter Academy

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reading carrels and lounge area

Philips Exeter Academy

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note difference in “warmth” of light

grand entry staircase and structure

Philips Exeter Academy

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various views of structure (contrast of wood and concrete)

Philips Exeter Academy

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views up into central volume, showing minimal toplighting and smoke vents

Philips Exeter Academy

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bookshelf engages structure and smoke vents

user of stair engages structure

Philips Exeter Academy

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Daylighting Example and smoke vents

exterior courtyard (note vegetative shading)

meeting room

Kimbell Art Museum, Dallas, TX; Louis Kahn (1972)

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images from: http://www.kimbellart.org/ and smoke vents

Kimbell Art Museum

gallery interior

exterior view

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images from: http://www.kimbellart.org/ and smoke vents

gallery interior

daylighting fixture

Kimbell Art Museum

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images from: http://www.kimbellart.org/ and smoke vents

exterior view

gallery open to courtyard

Kimbell Art Museum

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 29


Daylighting Example and smoke vents

Emerald People’s Utility District Offices, Eugene, OR; Equinox Design

south façade with fixed

and vegetative shading

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 30


north façade, note glazing, no shading and smoke vents

lightshelf

Emerald People’s Utility District Offices

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Emerald People’s Utility District Offices and smoke vents

south façade, note fabric shading devices

break room, note direct solar infusion

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it takes more than an aperture to make a daylighting system and smoke vents

skylight, unnamed architecture building (think about maintenance)

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Phoenix Convention Center and smoke vents

some serious external shading

shading, more and less, from glass

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Why carbon dioxide matters
Why Carbon and smoke ventsDioxide Matters

http://img257.imageshack.us/i/3way8fp.png/

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 35


Why reducing carbon emissions matters
Why Reducing Carbon Emissions Matters and smoke vents

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9527485/

Fall 1979 Fall 2005

Ball State Architecture | ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 1 | Grondzik 36


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