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Classic Function of Salads. To accompany hot roasts To accompany cold roasts. Modern Types of Salads. Starter Course Accompaniment Main Course Separate Course Dessert. Simple Salads. Simple salads are basic in nature and composition, and include:

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Classic Function of Salads

  • To accompany hot roasts

  • To accompany cold roasts

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Modern Types of Salads

  • Starter Course

  • Accompaniment

  • Main Course

  • Separate Course

  • Dessert

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Simple Salads

  • Simple salads are basic in nature and composition, and include:

    • Light salads made from a variety of one of more greens, fruits, pastas, or grains, but not in combination with each other

    • Generally dressed with mild seasonings, such as vinaigrette, and used as an accompaniment to the entrée

      • Examples: cole slaw, macaroni salad, spinach salad, gelatins, fruit cup

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Complex or Mixed Salads

  • Heartier in character than simple salads

  • Composed of raw or cooked vegetables, fruits, meats, seafood, game, or poultry

  • Contain multiple ingredients from the same food categories

  • Seasoned with flavorful dressings or marinades

    • Examples: seafood salad, grilled marinated vegetables, and fruit plate with citrus yogurt dressing

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Combination Salads

  • All ingredients are blended together as one homogenous flavor

  • Composed of several different categories of ingredients that are seasoned separately, but presented on the same plate

  • Most substantial of salads, and generally featured as a main course

    • Examples: chef salad, pasta primavera, warmed grilled duck breast over greens with walnut vinaigrette and Gorgonzola, boiled chicken and macadamia nut salad in pineapple wedges

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Salad Composition

  • Parts

    • Base

      • Under liner and canvas

    • Body

      • Most important part, focal point

    • Dressing

      • Moistens and flavors the other ingredients

    • Garnish

      • Adds contrast in taste, texture, color, height, aroma

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Quality Points for Evaluation

  • Appropriateness

  • Taste, Flavor, Aroma

  • Appearance

  • Texture and Sound

  • Nutritional Value

  • Portion Size

  • Cost

  • Practicality

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Salad Ingredients

  • May contain any variety of ingredients and seasonings

    • Vegetables

    • Fruits

    • Grains

    • Starches

  • Cold Sauces and Dressings

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Emulsion Dressings

  • Basic French Vinaigrette

  • Mayonnaise

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Boiled or Cooked Dressings

  • Developed in Early America

  • Vegetable oil was scarce

  • Use milk thickened by cooked flour and eggs rather than an emulsion

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Vegetables

  • 300,000 plant species on earth

  • 6,000 are edible

  • 150 are consumed on the world market

  • Classification

    • Greens

    • Vine

    • Bulbs, roots, tubers

    • Legumes

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Techniques for Preparing Vegetables

  • Greens

    • Freshness: free of rust spots; crisp when bent

    • Roots should be attached to delay oxidation

    • Heads of lettuce should be firm to squeeze and tightly closed

    • Broccoli or cauliflower should have tightly packed flower heads, firm stems, and no sign of yellow or brown

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Techniques for Preparing Vegetables

  • Greens

    • Cabbage heads should not be open

    • Remove bruised and wilted leaves to prevent further decay

    • Remove metal or rubber bands because they cause bruising and rust

    • Soaking and floating greens in cold water revives them when slightly limp

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Techniques for Preparing Vegetables

  • Greens

    • Swirl in water to aid in cleansing, then gently lift to allow dirt to sink away from greens

    • Must be dried thoroughly after washing

    • Leaves should be stored whole, and cut only when ready for use

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Bulbs, Roots, and Tubers

  • Bulbs are subterranean buds consisting of both stems and leaves

  • Roots are typically those parts of the plant that grow downward away from the sun and into the soil

  • Tubers are the swollen tips of underground stems

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Traditional Vegetable Cuts

  • Cubes

    • Brunoise – 1/8³

    • Small dice – 1/4³

    • Medium dice – 3/8³

    • Large dice – 5/8³

    • Paysanne – ½ inch × 1/8 inch

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Traditional Vegetable Cuts

  • Linear

    • Julienne – 1/8 inch × 2 inches

    • Batonnet – ¼ inch × 2 inches

    • Oblique – a rolled cut with 2 angled sides

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Traditional Vegetable Cuts

  • Tourné is football-shaped with seven equal sides and blunt ends

    • Basic Styles

      • Classical

      • Elongated

      • Château

      • Pointed

      • Bullet

      • Angular bullet

      • Fondant

      • Olivette

      • parisienne

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Vine

  • Plants are generally grown in mounds and send out vines that run over the ground

    • Quality Factors:

      • Little fragrance usually provides little taste

      • Baseball-like hardness generally indicates immaturity

      • Some are best when young: peas, green beans, cucumbers, squash

      • Ideal zucchini or cucumber is of moderate, uniform diameter, like a sausage

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Vine

  • Quality Factors:

    • Gourd-type when left on the vine until the plant is dead and the shell is hard will keep all winter long

    • Peas in snow peas or beans in green beans should be barely perceptible, or not visible at all

    • Pear-shaped tomatoes are better for cooking than eating

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Vine

  • Quality Factors:

    • Walls of chilies and peppers thicken and get sweeter—or hotter—as they get older

    • Green peppers are immature

    • Potatoes should be firm and not green

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Apples

      • Use wash-free if possible

      • Store loosely in refrigerator

      • Placed cut or peeled in water with ½ teaspoon of ascorbic acid power or ½ finely crushed vitamin C tablet or ½ cup lemon juice to prevent browning

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Apricots

      • Cut in half, remove pit

      • To peel, blanch for 10–20 seconds

    • Cantaloupe

      • Press larger indentation to check for ripeness

      • Wash before cutting to prevent cross-contamination

      • Gently scoop out seeds with a spoon

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Cherries

      • Should be firm with tight skin

      • Use pitter to remove pit over a bowl

    • Grapes

      • Wash thoroughly before using

      • Should have bunches held tightly to stems

      • Store covered in refrigerator

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Honeydew Melon

      • Should be heavy for size

      • Should smell sweet like honey

      • Wash well before using

    • Kiwi

      • Remove skin, slice, serve

      • Seeds are edible

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Lemons

      • Should feel heavy for size

      • Smooth skin with no green spots

      • Store loosely in refrigerator

      • To get most juice, roll on countertop before squeezing, or prick with knife and microwave for 30 seconds on high

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Mangoes

      • Should smell sweet and be soft when pressed, but not wrinkled

      • Hold upright and cut down along one of the flat sides; repeat other side

      • Score flesh with a knife in a crisscross pattern

      • Turn skin inside out and cut off chunks of fruit from peel

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Papaya

      • Large black seeds are edible—peppery taste

      • Should give slightly to pressure

      • Wash, peel, scoop out seeds, slice

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Peaches

      • Should be firm, yellow with red or pink blush

      • Should smell sweet and give slightly to palm pressure

      • Pit of freestone variety is easier to remove than cling

      • Can be blanched for 30 seconds in boiling water

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Pears

      • Perfectly ripe when not too soft and too firm

      • Flesh should be slightly soft at stem end

      • Juice is thick and can be diluted with apple juice

    • Pineapple

      • Should smell ripe and give slightly to pressure at bottom

      • A leaf should pull freely from the crown

      • Wash, then firmly grasp the leaves to twist off

      • Cut into 4 sections, then cut flesh from prickly peel

      • Remove hard core and slice or cut into chunks

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

  • Raspberries

    • Wash gently and quickly before serving

    • Check for damaged and/or moldy fruits in the bottom of the container

  • Starfruit

    • Ripe when yellow and give slightly to pressure

    • Entire fruit is edible

    • Wash and slice to create the fruit’s star pattern

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Techniques in Preparation

    • Strawberry

      • Should be red, firm, and plump

      • Wash thoroughly, cut off leaves (hull) and any white part at the top, or shoulder

      • Slice or chop

    • Watermelon

      • Best when cut into wedges, then sliced

      • When ripe will give hollow thud when thumped and will smell sweet

      • Wash thoroughly before cutting

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Fruits

  • Citrus Fruits

    • More important families of fruit

    • Good flavor: bitter, sour, sweet

    • Large capacity for juice makes them unique for salads, cooking, confectionery, and distillery

    • Good source of vitamin C

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Segmenting Citrus Fruits

  • First trim the top and bottom flat to expose inner fruit

  • Stand on work surface and remove skin, including white pith

  • Follow natural round shape, taking care not to cut off too much flesh—turn as each cut is made

  • Trim off any white areas that may remain

  • Insert the knife blade between the membrane and the pulp of each segment, and cut toward the center

  • Flip the cutting edge away so that the blade is now parallel to the next membrane

  • Push out to remove segment

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Berries

  • Procedure for Holding

    • Check for and remove any moldy or deformed berries

    • Use overripe berries within 24 hours

    • Arrange unwashed berries on sheet pans lined with paper towels (only wash before use)

    • Top with paper towel to prevent absorption of additional moisture

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Berries

  • Procedure for Holding

    • Wrap entire container; should be eaten within one week

    • Whole berries for salads or baked goods should be used frozen

    • Freezing is an alternative for short shelf life; will last 10 months to a year

    • Serve partially frozen, when served alone

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Grapes

  • Edible fruit in the buckthorn family

  • Used in winemaking and for eating

  • Table grape is fuller fleshed and crunchier, than the wine grape

  • Table grape is seedless

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Sugar-Coating Grapes

  • Wash and dry small clusters

  • Whip raw egg white until it is slightly frothy (note: lemon juice may be used as a safer alternative)

  • Dip cluster into egg whites or lemon juice, a few grapes at a time, or coat with pastry brush

  • Gently dip wet grapes into fine granulated sugar, bouncing them in a sieve to remove excess sugar

  • Place coated clusters on parchment-lined sheet pans to harden for about an hour in a cool area

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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Grains

  • Fruit and plant material from cereal grasses

  • No food is more widely consumed than grains

  • Staple part of most cuisines

  • Simple to prepare, and nutritious

  • Milled grains that are broken into pieces are called cracked

  • Further milling creates meal

  • The finest milling creates flour

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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