Khalifat rasul allah
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khalifat rasul allah = “successor to the Messenger of God” = caliph. the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):. 632-634 Abu Bakr 634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab 644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan 656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib followed by: the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750). 632-34 Wars of the Ridda

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The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

khalifat rasul allah = “successor to the

Messenger of God” = caliph

the rashidun (rightly-guided caliphs):

632-634 Abu Bakr

634-644 ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab

644-656 ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

656-661 ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

followed by:

the Umayyad dynasty (r. 661-750)


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

632-34 Wars of the Ridda

jihad (struggle/holy war)

636 Battle of the Yarmuk

637 Damascus taken


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

637 Persian army destroyed at

Qadisiyya. Ctesiphon taken.

654 Completion of conquest of

Khurasan

639-42 Muslim conquest of Egypt. Fustat

founded.

diwan (register)


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

644 Death of ‘Umar

655 Muslims defeat Byzantines at sea,

take Cyprus.

656 Death of ‘Uthman. Outbreak of civil

war.

661 Death of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. Mu‘awiya

ibn Abi Sufyan founds Umayyad

dynasty, which rules until 750.


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

MervBukharaSamarqand

TransoxianaAmu Darya/Oxus

IndusSind


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

717-18 Last Muslim attempt to take

Constantinople

BerbersVisigoths

711-16 Muslims conquer Spain

732/733 Charles Martel defeats Muslims at

Tours/Poitiers

717-20 Caliphate of ‘Umar II (‘Umar ibn

‘Abd al-‘Aziz)


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jabir ibn Dawud

al-Baladhuri (d. c. 892)

Very little known about him. Spent most

of life in Baghdad, but travelled widely

to study.

Companion of caliph al-Mutawakkil (r. 847-61)

2 major works: Futuh al-Buldan - history of

Muslim conquests to taking of Iraq/Persia

Ansab al-Ashraf - biographies of important

Muslims


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i (767-820)

Founder of the Shafi‘i school of law

Brought up in Mecca. Studied in Medina under

Malik ibn Anas (d. 795).

Spent time in Yemen, Egypt, Iraq incl.

Baghdad (where worked as a teacher),

Mecca, then back in Egypt (Fustat),

where died.


The rashidun rightly guided caliphs

Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi‘i (767-820)

Wrote many legal works, including:

Risala (defense of Prophetic hadith as

first source of law after Qur’an)

Kitab al-Umm (legal teaching on

various subjects)


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