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Surface Water Treatment Rule. Bob Clement Drinking Water Program U.S. EPA Region 8. Surface Water Treatment Rule Ground Water Reclassification. PWS TYPE: STATE DETERMINATION BY: CWS 6/29/94 NCWS 6/29/99

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surface water treatment rule

Surface Water Treatment Rule

Bob Clement

Drinking Water Program

U.S. EPA Region 8

surface water treatment rule ground water reclassification
Surface Water Treatment RuleGround Water Reclassification

PWS TYPE:STATE DETERMINATION BY:

CWS 6/29/94

NCWS 6/29/99

40 CFR 142.16 (b)(2)(B) _______________________________________________________________________________

DETERMINATIONACTION

Direct influence Meet avoidance criteria within of surface water 18 months or

Install filtration within 18 months 40 CFR 141.71

surface water treatment rule general requirements
Surface Water Treatment RuleGeneral Requirements
  • All surface water systems must disinfect(40 CFR 141.70 (a))
  • Minimum 99.9 / 99.99% removal or inactivation of Giardia cysts / viruses(40 CFR 141.70(a)(1 & 2))
  • System operated by qualified personnel(40 CFR 141.70(c))
  • Treatment specified by primary agency (source water quality, site specific factors)(40 CFR141.70(a))
surface water treatment rule general requirements1
Surface Water Treatment RuleGeneral Requirements
  • Applies to surface supplies and groundwater supplies under the influence of surface water
  • Regulates for Giardia, viruses, Legionella, heterotrophic bacteria, and turbidity
cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium can survive for months in soil under cool, dark conditions and for up to a year in low turbidity water.

(Badenoch et al., 1990)

Cryptosporidium is ubitquitous. It is found even in the most pristine watersheds.

cryptosporidium1
Cryptosporidium

In almost all cases, wherever Giardia was present, Cryptosporidium was also present. (LeChevallier et al., 1991a)

We simply did not look for both at the same time in previous studies. The highest level at a single site was 484 oocysts/L in Missouri.

cryptosporidium2
Cryptosporidium
  • It would take up to 29,000 mg/l of CL2 to inactivate crypto.
  • Traditional chlorination doesn’t work. Physical removal by treatment is the only method of reduction for crypto.
cryptosporidium3
Cryptosporidium

In an immuno-compromised individual, cryptosporidium can cause a debilitating condition and may be fatal.

surface water treatment benefits
Surface Water Treatment Benefits
  • 90,000 illnesses per year avoided
  • Waterborne disease outbreaks avoided
  • Improved consumer confidence, more aesthetic water
  • Removal of precursors to disinfection by-products
  • Removal of inorganic and synthetic organic chemicals
turbidity monitoring requirements filtered systems
Turbidity Monitoring RequirementsFiltered Systems
  • One measurement every 4 hours of operation by grab sample, or continuous monitoring
  • States may reduce monitoring to one grab sample / day in systems < 501 people regardless of treatment technology
  • Slow sand filtration and other technologies
  • State may reduce monitoring to one grab sample / day regardless of population size

(40 CFR 141.74(c)(1))

turbidity performance requirements filtered systems
Turbidity Performance RequirementsFiltered Systems
  • All systems - never exceed 5 NTU (40 CFR 141.73)
  • Conventional treatment, direct filtration: < 0.5 NTU 95% of measurements

(State may allow up to < 1 NTU 95% of measurements) (40 CFR 141.73(a))

  • Diatomaceous earth filtration - < 1 NTU 95% of measurements(40 CFR 141.73 (c))
turbidity performance requirements filtered systems1
Turbidity Performance RequirementsFiltered Systems
  • Slow sand and other filtration technologies

< 1 NTU 95% of measurements (State may allow up to < 5 NTU 95% of measurements but cannot exceed 5 NTU)

(40 CFR 141.73 (b) and (d))

turbidity standards
Turbidity Standards
  • Systems using a technology other than conventional, direct, slow sand or diatomaceous earth filtration are in compliance if: system demonstrates to the State that alternative filtration technology in combination with disinfection … (40 CFR 141.73(d))
turbidity standards1
Turbidity Standards
  • … alternative filtration technology in combination with disinfection consistently achieves removal and/or inactivation of:
      • 99.9% of Giardia lamblia cysts (filtration + disinfection)
      • 99.99% of viruses (filtration + disinfection)
      • 99% of Cryptosporidium (filtration alone) (Interim Enhanced SWTR 12/16/98)
disinfection requirements for filtered systems
Disinfection Requirements for Filtered Systems
  • Entry point to distribution system 40 CFR 141.74(c)(2)
  • Distribution system 40 CFR 141.74(c)(3)
  • Filtration and disinfection achieves at least 3/4 Log removal / inactivation (State determination) 141.70 (a)(1&2)
disinfection requirements entry point to distribution system
Disinfection RequirementsEntry Point to Distribution System
  • Residual entering distribution system

cannot be < 0.2 mg/L for > 4 hours

  • > 3300 people - continuous monitoring (grab sample allowed every 4 hours up to 5 days if monitoring equipment fails)40 CFR 141.74(c)(2)
  • 1-4 samples / day allowed for systems serving < 3301 people
  • If residual is < 0.2 mg/L, must notify the State before end of next business day
disinfection requirements entry point to distribution system1
Disinfection RequirementsEntry Point to Distribution System
  • 1-4 samples / day allowed for systems serving < 3301 people

SIZE # OF SAMPLES

< 500 1

501-1000 2

1001-2500 3

2501-3,300 4

  • If residual is < 0.2 mg/L, must notify the State before end of next business day

40 CFR 141.74(c)(2)

distribution system disinfection requirements
Distribution System Disinfection Requirements
  • Residual cannot be absent or HPC > 500ml in > 5% of samples/month for 2 mo.
  • Monitoring locations / frequency (same as total coliform samples)
  • For systems receiving groundwater and surface water, States may allow monitoring at surface water sites 40 CFR 141.74(c)(3)(i&ii)
  • Above requirements do not apply if HPC monitoring not feasible and State determines adequacy of disinfection
recommended removal and disinfection levels
Recommended Removal and Disinfection Levels

Assumed Log Recommended Log Removals Disinfection

Treatment Giardia Viruses _ Giardia Viruses

Conventional 2.5 2.0 0.5 2.0

Direct Filtration 2.0 1.0 1.0 3.0

Slow Sand 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 Filtration

recommended removal and disinfection levels1
Recommended Removal and Disinfection Levels

Assumed Log Recommended Log Removals Disinfection

Treatment Giardia Viruses _ Giardia Viruses

Diatomaceous 2.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 Earth Filtration

Bag/Cart 2.0 0.0 1.0 4.0

Membranes As determined by the State

disinfection contact times
Disinfection Contact Times

Contact time calculations will be easy when a spreadsheet is published in the American Water Works Association’s OpFlow in the summer of 1999.

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