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PAVES THE WAY. BITUMEN. Tar Natural Asphalt / Rock Asphalt / Lake Asphalt Bitumen. Types of Binders. Produced from Wood or Coal by destructive distillation process Coke Oven Tar Produced at temperatures above 1200 O C during manufacturing of coke. High aromatic content.

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Paves the way



Types of binders


Natural Asphalt / Rock Asphalt / Lake Asphalt


Types of Binders

Types of binders

Produced from Wood or Coal by destructive distillation process

Coke Oven Tar

Produced at temperatures above 1200OC during manufacturing of coke.

High aromatic content.

Pitch content - 50 %.

Low Aromatic Tar

Produced at temperatures 600OC to 700OC.

Less viscous.

Paraffinic in nature.

Pitch content - 35 %.


Natural asphalt rock asphalt lake asphalt

Natural Asphalt / Rock Asphalt / Lake Asphalt

  • Naturally occurring Bituminous binder.

  • Biggest deposits in Trinidad

    • 100 Acres,

    • 90 meter deep

    • 10 to 15 Million MT

    • Pen - 5 max

  • Asphalt found in France, Italy & Switzerland - Rock Asphalt.



  • Conventional Bitumen

    • Paving Grade Bitumen

    • Industrial Grade Bitumen

  • Cutback

  • Bitumen Emulsions

  • Modified Bitumen

  • Modified Bitumen Emulsions

  • B i t u m e n

    B I T U M E N


    The stiffness concept

    In solids :

    E = s


    where, E = Elastic modulus

    s =Stress

    e =Strain

    The Stiffness Concept

    Engineering properties of bitumen

    Bitumen is a visco-elastic material & it’s deformation under stress is a function of both temperature & loading time

    At higher temperature &/or longer loading time

    Behave as viscous liquids

    At low temperature &/or short loading time

    Behave as elastic solids

    The intermediate range of temperatures, more typical of the conditions in service, result in visco-elastic behaviour.

    Engineering Properties of Bitumen

    The stiffness concept1

    In visco-elastic material :

    St,T = s


    Where, St,T = Stiffness modulus at specific time t & Temp. T.

    s =Stress

    et,T= Strain at specific time t & temp. T.

    The Stiffness Concept



    B I T U M E N

    Elemental analysis

    Carbon82 - 88 %

    Hydrogen 8 -11 %

    Sulphur 0 - 6 %

    Oxygen 0 -1.5 %

    Nitrogen 0 - 1 %

    Elemental Analysis

    Chemical composition

    Chemical Composition

    Increases Penetration

    Decreases Penetration

    Increases Softening Point, reduces Penetration Index, increases Viscosity

    Reduces Shear Susceptibility

    Specifications and test methods

    Specifications andTest Methods

    What is expected from bitumen

    Ensure road behaves in a predictable way

    Bitumen performs the desired function on the road

    Does not fail under predictable loads

    Resists deterioration of road with time

    Is able to withstand expected climatic conditions

    Mix easily and form strong bond with a wide variety of aggregates

    Is safe to handle

    Modified Bitumen and Bitumen Emulsions should be a stable mixture in storage and handling

    What is expected from Bitumen?

    What properties need to be tested

    Hardness – Penetration

    Withstand high temperatures – Softening Point

    Withstand repetitive loading/unloading – Ductility

    Withstand low temperatures – Fraass breaking point

    Ease of mixing with aggregate – Viscosity at 135OC

    Safety in handling - Flash point

    Purity – Solubility in Trichloroethylene

    Weight to volume conversion – Specific gravity

    Deterioration of properties w.r.t. time and temperature – Thin Film Oven Test

    What properties need to be tested?

    Relationship between properties

    Relationship Between Properties

    Types of binders



    Softening Point

    – 800



    Fraass Breaking Pt

    – 1.25


    • Viscosity

    • at

    • Softening Point

    • 1200 Pa s

    • (12000 poise)

    Bitumen test data chart

    Bitumen Test Data Chart

    Optimal viscosity for mixing compaction

    Optimal Viscosity for mixing & compaction

    Selection of

    Selection of


    Choice of grade

    Choice of Bitumen is based on

    Climatic Conditions - Maximum & Minimum temperature & rainfall.

    Intensity of Traffic - Number of vehicles per day, Traffic speed & axle load of vehicles.

    Choice of Grade

    Applications of 80 100 grade

    Less viscous grade.

    Used in all climatic conditions.

    Suited for traffic load < 1500 cv/day.

    Better suited for high altitude/snow bound regions irrespective of traffic intensity.

    Applications of 80/100 Grade

    Applications of 60 70 grade

    More viscous grade.

    Higher softening point.

    Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/day.

    Can withstand heavier axle loads.

    Better suited for highways, expressways & urban roads.

    Suited for areas where difference between min. & max. temp. is > 25oC.

    Reduced stripping in presence of water.

    Applications of 60/70 Grade

    Applications of 30 40 grade

    Suited for areas where diff. between min. & max. temp. < 25oC.

    Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/ day

    Used in metropolitan areas.

    Used in airport runways.

    Applications of 30/40 Grade

    Handling of

    Handling of


    Hardening of bitumen

    Bitumen hardens with time

    Softening Point increases

    Ductility decreases

    Penetration decreases

    Factors affecting hardening

    High temperature

    Surface area exposed to air

    Exposure to UV radiation

    Hardening of Bitumen

    Aging of bitumen

    Aging of Bitumen

    Types of binders

    Normally Bitumen hardens by one grade during mixing and laying.










    Environment friendly


    State of-the-art

    Stage Construction

    Resistant to de-icing material




    Better riding quality

    Absence of joints

    Estimated 15% increase in pavement life for 50% increase in smoothness

    Less wear and tear to vehicle

    Lesser fuel consumption

    Enjoyable ride


    Types of binders

    Better skid resistance over a longer period of time

    Use of OGFC reduces Tyre Spray, Hydroplaning and Improves Visibility

    Better contrast with pavement markings



    Low initial cost compared to PCC

    Gap widens throughout pavement life

    A well designed and constructed pavement

    Can last for 25 to 34 years without reconstruction

    Can serve for 15 year or more before distresses become sufficient to require rehabilitation


    Speed of construction

    Newark Airport – 1,15,000MT in 15 days, 11,000MT in 24 hours

    Pave during off peak hours and open to traffic as soon as it cools down

    Reduces work zone accident

    Can result in 80% reduction in user delay costs

    24-hour closure will have 3 to 10 times more vehicles pass through the work zone

    Speed of Construction

    Quiet pavements

    Dense graded asphalt is quieter by 2 to 3 dB(A) compared to PCC

    3 dB(A) corresponds to

    Doubling the distance in the line of source

    Reducing traffic volume by 50%

    Reducing traffic speed by 25%

    Open graded Friction Course

    Reduces noise further

    Costs 1/8th of noise barrier on side of the road

    Aesthetically superior

    Quiet Pavements

    Environment friendly

    Used for water proofing of fish ponds without any problem

    Very low level of leachable compounds

    Most recycled product in the world

    100% recyclable

    Second highest - Aluminium cans – 60%

    Can use waste material from other fields also like worn out PCC

    Environment Friendly

    State of the art

    Road design, construction and maintenance methods are being overhauled

    New tests being developed

    New plants providing high quality materials

    Pavers with laser controlled screeds for even smoother pavements

    Better material transfer vehicles for uniformity and rollers with increased compactive effort.

    The ultimate result of this new technology will be: smoother, more durable, longer lasting asphalt pavements


    Stage construction

    Bituminous pavements can be constructed in stages

    Being made thicker and/or wider as the need arises

    Each successive layer becomes an integral part of the pavement structure, increasing the load carrying capacity.

    Stage Construction

    De icing materials

    Bituminous pavements are not harmed by de-icing chemicals

    Also snow and ice melt quickly from bituminous pavements

    De-icing Materials


    Bituminous pavements can easily maintain a high level of serviceability with minimal disruption to the traffic

    Can be easily trenched, patched and quickly opened to traffic when underground utilities need to be repaired.






    Modified bitumen


    Binder of the future

    Why modified bitumen

    Demands on Road increasing every year

    Increasing Number of Vehicles

    Increasing Axle Load

    Desire to maintain higher serviceability level

    Higher fatigue resistance

    Higher resistance to weathering

    Better adhesion

    Higher stiffness modulus

    Lesser cracking, ravelling, deformation & creep failure

    Reduce number of overlays

    Reduction in vehicle operation cost

    Why Modified Bitumen?

    Crumb rubber modified bitumen



    Additives (Modifiers/Treated Crumb Rubber)

    Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Types of modifiers



    Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR)

    Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS)

    Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS)

    Ethylene-prppylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM)

    Isobutene-isoprene copolymer (IIR)

    Natural Rubber

    Crumb Rubber

    Polybutadiene (PBD)



    Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)

    Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA)

    Ethylene butyl acrylate (EBA)

    Atactic polypropylene (APP)

    Polyethylene (PE)

    Polypropylene (PP)

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

    Polystyrene (PS)


    Epoxy resin

    Polyurethane resin

    Acrylic resin

    Phenolic resin


    Organo-metallic compounds





    Alumino-magnesium silicate

    Glass fibre





    Orgainc amines





    Organo-zinc/organo-lead compounds


    Trinidad lake Asphalt (TLA)


    Rock asphalt


    Carbon black

    Hydrated lime


    Fly ash

    Types of Modifiers

    Types of binders

    Types of Modifiers

    Synthetic Elastomers

    SBS, SBR etc.




    Crumb Rubber

    Natural Rubber



    Epoxy Resins






    Selection criteria

    Atmospheric Temperature OC

    Minimum Maximum

    <35 35-45>45

    <-10 CRMB50CRMB 55CRMB 55

    -10 to10 CRMB 50 CRMB 55 CRMB 60

    >10 CRMB 55 CRMB 55 CRMB 60

    Selection Criteria

    International usage of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    International Usage of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Types of binders

    International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    • CRMB is being used in USA from 1960

      • Currently Arizona , Florida , Texas and California using 2 million tons of Rubberized Bitumen.

  • CRMB is very popular in Australia for chip sealing wearing courses and structural layers .

  • Use of CRMB is increasing in developing countries of Latin America.

  • Types of binders

    CRMB in use in USA, Canada, France , Germany and South Africa.

    UK Environmentalist’s want use of CRMB to be encouraged on roads. Govts. especially are considering making the use mandatory.

    Belgian Road Research Center is encouraging the use of CRMB on Freeways

    South African companies are increasingly using Rubber Modified mixes

    International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    New trends


    New Trends

    Future trends in bituminous roads

    ISO Certification of Roads

    Road Safety Audit

    Performance Based Specifications

    Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Perpetual Pavements

    Foamed Bitumen

    Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen

    Sulphur Extended Bitumen Modifiers

    Future Trends in Bituminous Roads

    Iso certification of roads

    Growth in EN ISO 9000 certification in European countries

    Voluntary activity driven by individual companies or by the national asphalt industry.

    To obtain management and marketing tools.

    In several countries certification is becoming a regulatory requirement, usually by mutual agreement between suppliers and clients.

    Effective quality schedules can be produced only by joint action of supplier and client side of road sector.

    If the positive aspects of certification are not taken into account in contract arrangements its introduction will increase the overall cost of asphalt roads

    ISO Certification of Roads

    Road safety audit

    Safety audit applied to

    Fresh project proposals

    Existing network of roads

    Specific existing project

    Auditors should be completely independent of the organization involved in development of project.

    The audit team comprising of 4-5 people inspect the roads during daytime and also at night.

    The team identifies aspects that the road controlling authority does well, as well as the aspects that could be improved.

    Road Safety Audit

    Performance grade specifications

    Existing Specifications

    Most tests are empirical tests and are not directly related to performance on the road

    Tests are conducted at one standard temp.

    Performance under climatic condition prevailing throughout the year are not evaluated

    Only short term ageing is evaluated, that too only in a few cases

    Performance grade tests simulate the actual field conditions in a more realistic way

    Performance Grade Specifications

    Stone mastic asphalt

    Increasingly popular Worldwide in heavy traffic roads & airfields.

    Even surface gives better riding comfort.

    Texture gives good skid resistance & relatively low traffic noise.

    Strong aggregate structure provided by the coarse aggregate particles gives excellent resistance to permanent deformation.

    Rich mastic, which fills the voids, makes SMA highly durable.

    Modified bitumen & Fibres can be used to further enhance the mechanical properties.

    Allows thin layer application.

    Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Perpetual pavements

    Structure Lasts 50+ years

    Bottom-Up Design and Construction

    Indefinite Fatigue Life

    Renewable Pavement Surface.

    High Rutting Resistance

    Tailored for Specific Application

    Consistent, Smooth and Safe Driving Surface.

    Environmentally Friendly

    Avoids Costly Reconstruction

    Perpetual Pavements

    Foamed bitumen

    Mixture of Bitumen (98%), water (1%) and foaming agent (1%)

    When hot bitumen (160 to 200OC) comes in contact with cold water (15 to 25OC)

    Mixture expands more than 10 times

    Forms a fine mist or foam

    Foamed bitumen is sprayed on fine aggregate in mixing drums to get a strong flexible pavement material

    Used for durable, fast and low cost rehabilitation of existing pavements

    Foamed Bitumen

    Polyphosphoric acid modified bitumen

    Lower stripping compared to other bitumens

    Reduction in mixing and laying temperatures

    Improves fracture strength and ductility

    Very low dosage of modifier

    Test tracks in the world are still under evaluation but preliminary results are very promising

    Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen

    Sulphur extended asphalt modifier

    Odourless pellets consisting of Sulphur, Plasticizers and additives

    Is added to the hot mix

    Melts and disperses easily

    Acts as binder extender and asphalt mix modifier

    Environmentally safe

    Reduces Bitumen requirement by 30%

    Mixing temperature is reduced by 10OC

    Higher resistance to rutting, fatigue failure and low temperature cracking

    Suitable for perpetual pavements

    Sulphur Extended Asphalt Modifier

    No wonder the smart choice is hp bitumen

    No Wonder “The smart choice is HP Bitumen”

    Thank You!

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