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BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance. Introduction. Ecologists usually define a population as… Characterized by the number of individuals and their density . Additional characteristics of a population include… .

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BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Introduction

  • Ecologists usually define a populationas…

    • Characterized by the number of individuals and their density.

      • Additional characteristics of a population include…


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distribution Limits

  • _____________________ limits geographic distribution of a species.

    • Organisms can only compensate so much for environmental variation.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Niches

  • _______: Summarizes environmental factors that influence growth, survival, and reproduction of a species.

    • Grinnell’s definition focused on the effects of the physical environment

    • Elton’s definition included biotic and abiotic factors


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Niches

  • Hutchinson defined niche as:

    • n equates the number of environmental factors important to survival and reproduction of a species.

  • ___________________- hypervolume

  • ___________________ includes interactions such as competition that may restrict environments where a species may live.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Kangaroo Distributions and Climate


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Tiger Beetle of Cold Climates

  • Tiger Beetle (Cicindelalongilabris) lives at higher latitudes and elevations than most other species in NA.

    • Schultz et. al. found metabolic rates of C. longilabris are higher and preferred temperatures ____________ than most other species.

      • Supports generalization that the physical environment limits species distributions.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Tiger Beetle of Cold Climates


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distributions of Plants Along a Moisture-Temperature Gradient

  • Encelia species distributions correspond to variations in temperature and precipitation.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distributions of Barnacles Along an Intertidal Gradient


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distributions of Barnacles Along an Intertidal Exposure Gradient

  • Organisms living in an intertidal zone have evolved to different degrees of resistance to…

    • Barnacles show …

      • Connell found Chthamalusstellatus restricted to upper levels while Balanusbalanoides is limited to middle and lower levels.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distributions of Barnacles Along an Intertidal Gradient

  • Balanus appears to be more vulnerable to _____________, excluding it from the upper intertidal zone.

  • Chthamalusadults appear to be excluded from lower areas by _____________ with Balanus.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distribution of Individuals on Small Scales

  • _____________: Equal chance of being anywhere.

  • _____________: Uniformly spaced.

  • _____________: Unequal chance of being anywhere.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distribution of Individuals on Small Scales


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

What pattern? Why?

http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2004/11/NestingColonyLG.jpg


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

What pattern? Why?

http://i.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/01216/gnu_1216499c.jpg


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Species of aggressive stingless bees that forage over clumped resources… how would you predict they be distributed? How about passive species foraging on regularly spread resources?

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2359/2459405670_f8082401c0.jpg


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distribution of Tropical Bee Colonies

  • As predicted, four species with regular distributions were highly aggressive.

    • Fifth was non-aggressive and ___________ distributed.

    • Prospective nest sites marked with ____________.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Distributions of Desert Shrubs

  • Traditional theory suggests desert shrubs are regularly spaced due to competition but….


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Organism Size and Population Density

How does aquatic invertebrate density cmopare to that of other animals of comparable size?

Density decreases as body size…

How does mammal density compare to bird density?


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Plant Size and Population Density

  • Plant population density ___________ with ____________ plant size.

    • Underlying details are very different.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Commonness and Rarity

  • Rabinowitz devised commonness classification based on (3) factors:

  • Populations that are least threatened by extinction, have extensive geographic ranges, broad habitat tolerances, and some large local populations.

    • All seven other combinations create some kind of rarity.


BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

Rarity

  • Rarity I

    • Peregrine Falcon

  • Rarity II

    • Passenger Pigeon

  • http://falconrytoday.net/news/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Peregrine-Falcon0014.jpg

    http://www.saroffillustration.com/portfolio/page/ns4_pigeon.jpg


    BIOL 3240 Plant and Animal Ecology – Distribution & Abundance

    Rarity

    • Rarity III

      • California Condor

    http://www.dfg.ca.gov/wildlife/hunting/condor/images/condor119.jpg


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