presented by ankur chattopadhyay cs591 project spring 2007
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A METHOD FOR IMPLEMENTING PRIVACY-PRESERVING SECURITY SURVEILLLANCE BY APPLYING CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES ON A REAL-TIME - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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A METHOD FOR IMPLEMENTING PRIVACY-PRESERVING SECURITY SURVEILLLANCE BY APPLYING CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES ON A REAL-TIME EMBEDDED DSP FRAMEWORK. Presented By- Ankur Chattopadhyay CS591 PROJECT SPRING 2007. Background Of The Problem. Today’s surveillance mechanism leads to “privacy invasion”

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presented by ankur chattopadhyay cs591 project spring 2007

A METHOD FOR IMPLEMENTING PRIVACY-PRESERVING SECURITY SURVEILLLANCE BY APPLYING CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES ON A REAL-TIME EMBEDDED DSP FRAMEWORK

Presented By-

Ankur Chattopadhyay

CS591 PROJECT SPRING 2007

background of the problem
Background Of The Problem
  • Today’s surveillance mechanism leads to “privacy invasion”
  • Legal issues in restricted places such as restrooms, private households
  • Over the years, instances of unmonitored crime on the rise.

“Eyes” Of A Camera Always Watching You Everywhere

the present issue to deal with
The Present Issue To Deal With
  • Current surveillance systems displace crime, rather than stop it

- Employment of CCTV moving crime out of the camera boundaries

  • Areas under surveillance become crime-free while unmonitored zones become targets for illegal activity

- Criminal acts committed in a private location, such as a locker room or restroom

some interesting facts
Some Interesting Facts
  • Instances of crime rising in schools
  • Most students avoid school restrooms out of fear
  • Almost 2000 students physically attacked each hour of the school day
  • The Unfortunate Truth

- Existing surveillance technology lowering privacy for the average person

- Simultaneously, pushing crime further out of the view of the cameras

the challenge faced
The Challenge Faced
  • So, the question posed to surveillance system designers:

How to apply technology in the right way and at the right place to enhance security while protecting fundamental privacy rights of individuals?

  • The answer to this question lies in the technology of PrivacyCam

- Future model of surveillance camera with privacy protection

privacycam
PrivacyCam

Blackfin DSP Module

Omnivision CMOS Camera Module

Integrated System: PrivacyCam

privacycam the technology
PrivacyCam: The Technology
  • Uses privacy through cryptographic obscuration (PICO) technique
  • PICO on a tiny Blackfin DSP processor chip, integrated with a small Omnivision CMOS camera module
  • Application runs on a real-time operating system (uCLinux under Linux) within the chip
  • Application performs the necessary tasks for privacy enhancement

- detection of the region to protect

- encryption of that region

system level design of the technology implementation
System Level Design Of The Technology Implementation

Capture image from the camera

Detect the region to protect (using face detection, skin detection, motion detection or other methods)

Use encryption key, generate session key and store the secured key, along with the protected region information, as embedded within the image

Carry out encryption on the region to protect, and pass on the encrypted data to the image compression process pipeline

detection of region of interest
Detection Of Region Of Interest
  • Background Subtraction Model
  • Two separate image frames, background model and a captured one, compared against each other
  • Compute per coefficient (pixel wise) difference for each 8 x 8 DCT block

- Compare the obtained difference with a model threshold value. If the majority of the coefficient differences are greater than the threshold, we encrypt (encode) that block, otherwise we don’t encrypt that block (for my research I have used JPEG image compression)

overview of secret key cryptography
Overview of Secret Key Cryptography
  • To transmit data securely over an insecure medium, two parties agree on a key in which to encrypt data.
    • This key is usually exchanged through public-key cryptographic methods
  • User A encrypts a block of data X with key W and sends this data to user B.
  • By using the same key W, user B decrypts the ciphertextY back into X

Insecure Medium

X

Z

Y

Y

Z-1

X

A

B

W

W

Fundamental Concept: Due to algorithm Z, it’s nearly impossible to recover data X from ciphertext Y without key W. “Guessing” the key W through exhaustive search is generally infeasible.

the aes algorithm
The AES Algorithm
  • The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
  • powerful standard cipher, that operates by performing a set of steps for a number of iterations called rounds
  • AES is a symmetric block cipher, and it’s better efficiency and effectiveness in handling data blocks (bytes) makes it an automatic choice over the vulnerable DES (Data Encryption Standard)
  • For my research I used the Rijndael Block Cipher
rijndael algorithm
Rijndael Algorithm
  • Rijndael Block Cipher Algorithm
    • Developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen (pronounced “Rhine-doll”)
    • An extremely fast, state-of-the-art, highly secure symmetric algorithm
    • Allows only 128, 192, and 256-bit key sizes
    • Variable block length supported
    • A block is the smallest data size the algorithm will encrypt
slide16

Some sample images from our PrivacyCam application while monitoring a private household. Each frame with a changing object is followed by an encrypted version. Here the human face region has been protected for hiding individual identity, thereby enhancing privacy.

uniqueness of our technology
Uniqueness Of Our Technology
  • Protects privacy - hides individual identity
  • Encrypts the image-region to protect with AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) using an encryption key
  • Enhances security against any possible crime scenario
  • Upon legal authorization, recovery of the full original image possible
  • Recovery process through decryption by accessing the encryption key
technology features advantages
Technology Features/Advantages
  • Unlike other existing technologies

- PrivacyCam allows general surveillance to continue, without disrupting the privacy of an individual

  • Compared to existing commercial privacy-enhancing applications like Emmitall
  • Provides better system stability and free from the typical vulnerabilities of software implementation
  • Forms a network based ethereal webcam sensor
analysis of technology
Analysis Of Technology
  • Low cost of embedded system hardware makes technology affordable
  • Smallness in size of system components makes technology space-optimized
  • Involves balanced DSP processors with minimum CPU overhead and very fast peripheral interfaces
  • System provides embedded real-time application with performance in the order of microseconds
target application areas
Target Application Areas
  • As a general-purpose security camera
  • in public places
  • In restricted areas like restrooms, locker-rooms to name a few
  • As a special vigilance camera
  • in bathrooms of school buildings

Locker Room

Rest Room

application areas
Application Areas
  • As a surveillance camera for monitoring

- old home centers for elder care

- trouble-prone zones of school/university

Elder Care Center

Examples of incidents of violence and trespassing at campus

recommendations
Recommendations
  • Need to test PrivacyCam in more realistic conditions like restrooms and locker rooms
  • Need to show more results of real-time performance in testing conditions
  • Potential research work in improving the mechanism of detecting the privacy region
  • Potential research work in trying out other public-key block cipher techniques
  • Need to build on the technology by extending to audio & audio-video surveillance
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Novel technology addressing the critical issue of “privacy invasion” in an efficient and cost-effective way in optimized space
  • Strikes fine balance between privacy protection and security enhancement
  • Meets all the ideal requirements of today’s surveillance
  • Growing and significant market
  • Our technology challenges existing privacy-enhancing applications and surveillance systems
references
References
  • Ankur Chattopadhyay, T.E. Boult, Privacy Cam: a Privacy Preserving Camera Using uCLinux on the Blackfin DSP – IEEE CVPR Embedded Computer Vision Workshop, 2007
  • T.E. Boult, PICO: Privacy Through Invertible Cryptographic Obscuration - IEEE Computer Vision for Interactive and Intelligent Environments, 2005
  • Michael Hennerich, Linux on the Blackfin DSP Architecture - Embedded Systems Conference Silicon Valley 2006
  • Marc Van Droogenbroeck, Partial Encryption of Images for Real-time Applications - Fourth IEEE Signal Processing Symposium, April 2004
references25
References
  • J.M. Rodriguez, W. Puech and A.G. Borsb, A Selective Encryption for Heterogeneous Color JPEG Images Based on VLC and AES Stream Cipher - Third European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging and Vision, June, 2006
  • W. Puech, P. Meuel, J.C. Bajard and M. Chaumont, Face Protection by Fast Selective Encryption in a Video - IET,Crime Security Conference June, 2006
  • Andrew Senior, Sharath Pankanti, Arun Hampapur, Lisa Brown, Ying-Li Tian, Ahmet Ekin, Blinkering Surveillance: Enabling Video Privacy through Computer Vision - IEEE Security & Privacy, 2005
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