Biology journal 2 10 2014
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Biology Journal 2/10/2014. Whenever blood enters the heart (either side), what do we call the chamber does it go into first? Where does it go second? What does it leave through?. Biology Journal 2/11/14. What do you think could happen to you if your blood suddenly lost all of its….

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Biology Journal 2/10/2014

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Biology Journal 2/10/2014

Whenever blood enters the heart (either side), what do we call the chamber does it go into first? Where does it go second? What does it leave through?

Biology Journal 2/11/14

What do you think could happen to you if your blood suddenly lost all of its…

White blood cells

Red blood cells



The Transport System

6.2 Transport System

  • Bloodletting: The ancient practice of removing blood from the body in order to cure illness.

  • Nearly all cultures developed this and thought that it was a really good idea.

And the idea stuck for a really long time…

December 12, 1799: George Washington catches pneumonia after riding on horseback in the freezing rain.

December 14, 1799: George Washington receives 4 blood letting treatments from the best doctors of the day. They draw 9 pints of blood over the course of 1 day.

9 pints is equivalent to 1.25 gallons of blood

George Washington dies that night


So why’d George need all that blood anyways?

“I’m suing for medical malpractice.”

In every complete cycle, the blood travels through the heart twice.

  • Oxygenated blood: has high concentration of O2. Low concentration of CO2.

  • Always shown as red

  • Deoxygenated blood: has high concentration of CO2. Low concentration of O2.

  • Always shown as blue

What colors does blood have?

Where does blood go from being deoxygenated to oxygenated?

What’s in your blood?

  • Plasma

  • Liquid part of the blood

  • Dissolves or carries all other components of blood.


Some hospitals will pay money for plasma. Why would hospitals want to have a lot of plasma on hand?

What’s in your blood?

  • Leucocytes (White blood cells)

  • Phagocytes: “eat up” or phagocytosize pathogens and dead cells.

  • Lymphocytes (B-cells, T-cells) for immune response

What’s in your blood?

  • Platelets

  • Clump together to make a blood clot. Initiated by clotting factors.

Clots are good, but they can still have bacteria in them, leading to infection. Before antibiotics, the best way to ensure that a wound wouldn’t get infected would be to burn it shut, or cauterize, it.

What’s in your blood?

  • Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)

  • Transport oxygen (through their hemoglobin proteins)

Bloodletting Tools:A Medical House of Horrors

Scarificators: The Height of Bloodletting Technology

Stephen Taylor

Stephen Taylor

  • Valves keep blood moving in one direction.

  • Atrioventricular valves: Two, between the atria and the ventricles.

  • Semilunar valves: Two, between the ventricles and the arteries that exit the heart.

Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart tissue itself.


  • carry blood away from the heart.

  • Elastic and reinforced with muscle so that they can expand under high blood pressure

  • You can feel the arteries expand and contract when you take a person’s pulse!


  • carry blood back to the heart.

  • Are thin because they’re under low pressure

  • Have valves to prevent backward flow of blood.

  • Blood is squeezed along when skeletal muscles are flexed.


  • 1 cell thick

  • Substances (especially O2 and CO2) can diffuse right through them.

This is a microscope slide. What kind of blood vessel do you think this is this? Why?

A microscope slide. Which is the artery and which is the vein? Why do you think so?

Atherosclerosis: A condition where the arteries thicken and become blocked by the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, and/or white blood cells.

These are arteries with atherosclerosis.

Where do you think the original wall of the artery was?

How big is the opening now?

When someone has Atherosclerosis, an artery often tears or ruptures, causing a blood clot to form at that location.

  • Clot in the brain = stroke

  • Clot in the coronary arteries = heart attack

What are blood clots made out of?

The Heart Attack Grill: where skinny, over-sexualized waitresses celebrate obesity.

Control of Heartbeat

A region of myocytes (muscle cells) called the sinoatrical node (or pacemaker) controls the heart beat rate. It contracts, sending a wave of contracting myocytes through the atria, then the ventricles.

Control of Heartbeat

The medulla of the brain speeds up heart rate when blood CO2 levels become high, and decreases heart rate when blood CO2 becomes low.

The hormone adrenalin causes rapid heart rate increase (fight-or-flight response)

Youtube videos:

Title: ”Nightline from ABC News : The Heart Attack Grill”

Title: “Dick Cheney speaks about heart troubles”

…almost exactly one year later Dick Cheney goes from saying he’s not going to get a transplant to getting one and the commentators discuss the debate of who gets transplants…

Title: “What's Hot: Age Debate over Heart Transplant List”

Title: “Heart Anatomy.” An excellent summary of how the heart works.

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