World war one the trench warfare and its consequences
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WORLD WAR ONE THE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. CONTEXT AND STRATEGIES TACTICS AND IDEOLOGIES TRAUMAS. I. MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS AND BATTLEFRONTS :. Three fronts : Western, Russian (or Eastern), Balkanic and Turkish.

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WORLD WAR ONE THE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

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World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

WORLD WAR ONETHE TRENCH WARFARE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

CONTEXT AND STRATEGIES

TACTICS AND IDEOLOGIES

TRAUMAS


I movements of troops and battlefronts

I. MOVEMENTS OF TROOPS AND BATTLEFRONTS :

Three fronts : Western, Russian (or Eastern), Balkanic and Turkish.

Strategic spots : the straits, the seas (the routes to the colonies, trade with the US…), the Channel ports (Dunkirk).

Psychological targets : Paris, London, Moscow and civilians everywhere.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

  • Three main phases on the Western Front :

  • Plans and races to the sea failed: 1914 ;

  • end of the war of movement

  • Trench warfare : 1915-17 ;

  • soldiers and armies dug themselves

  • Troops moved again : 1917-18


The example of the first phase of the war

The example of the first phase of the war :

The German Schlieffen Plan

The French Plan 17

September 1914 : Battle of the Marne.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

The formation of the first trench frontline:

October-November 1914.

To avoid being skirted round / bypassed (contourné) / & cut from reinforcements.

Both armies moved northwards and met in a bloody battle at Ypres. After a month the fight ended.

20,000 of Germany’s finest troops were killed, 80,000 wounded.

GB lost 8,000 men (BEF : British Expeditionary Force).


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

THERE WAS NO BREAKTHROUGH, THERE WAS STALEMATE.

Stalemate : impasse.

Major battles :


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Major battles on the Western Front:

Verdun,

Feb-June 1916

Ypres,

Oct-Nov 1914.

The Somme,

summer to autumn 1916.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

II. WHAT THE COMBATS AND THE TACTICS REVEALED ABOUT STATES AND THE MILITARY MIND-SET


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

German side

No permanent retreat

Occupy the land, consolidate the front, adapt technologies

Liberate Germany from blockade

French side

Never surrender

Never retreat

Never wait and see

British side

Never lose the control of seas

Adapt technologies


The trench system

The trench system :


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

T

R

E

N

C

H

Infantry

Artillery

Permanent victories and withdrawals: the inefficiency of the trench tactics…

T

R

E

N

C

H

Artillery

No Man's Land

Infantry


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Cheshire Regiment trench, Somme, 1916.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

A French WWI bunker soldier.


What was this war effort made for

What was this war effort made for?


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

State -

controlled

economies.

To experience new economic models?

« Technology experienced a great boost after the war, as the production of automobiles, airplanes, radios and even certain chemicals, skyrocketed.

Theadvantages of mass production and the use of machinery to perform former human labor tasks, along with the implementation of the eight hour work day, proved to stimulate the economy ».


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

To imply civilians at any cost?

Verdun, the Somme, Ypres… = the war of attrition (usure).

It consisted in obliging the enemy to exhaust its human supplies by defending a place it did not want to lose.

The goal was not to take the place but to bleed French army white (“saigner à blanc l’armée française” = to bleed the French dry) and to weaken the morale of troops; if France was crushed down, it would isolate Britain and force this country to seek peace.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

To summon the populations in a collective destiny?

Censorship Propaganda

Enrolment

War loans


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Document analyzis

US Army recruitment poster

Harry R. Hopps, 1917

Present (context, author, intentions)

Observe then describe the composition; interpret on the meaning


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Present (context, author, intentions)

Document analyzis

US Army recruitment poster

Harry R. Hopps, 1917

Enlistment poster, to recruit new soldiers / fresh meat

1917: year of US military involvement (arrive in France in April)

Tense year of the tide for the Entente members: loss of hundreds of thousands of men in the Dardanelles, larger discontent among the troops, first severe soldier disregards at the front

US army: needs to mobilize, to make US public opinion aware with the necessity of war and to warn it about the enemy’s intentions

 To what extent does it talk about state war efforts? Is it about peace or propaganda?


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Observe – Describe - Interpret

Document analyzis

US Army recruitment poster

Harry R. Hopps, 1917

  • Foreground

  • giant letters giving orders

  • giant terrifying ape + bloody bludgeon + ironic writing of « Kultur » + German spiked helmet with the caption « militarism »

  • abducted innocent woman; clothes are taken off, ripped / torn, sliced and diced = like a rape onto a maiden

  • Dark colours predominate

  • Background

  • Dark atmosphere (the sunset swallows the light) + feeling of desolation inspired by the havoc wrecked in European cities (all in ruins)

  • Tends to maximize the evil side of the German ambitions

  • Caricatures the desolation that may touch the US land (« America »)

  • Warns people and affects them in an emotional way to convince to go fighting


Iii traumas

III. TRAUMAS


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Many soldiers suffered from shell shock. The intensity of the battles  neurotic cracks appeared in mentally stable soldiers.

War veterans with severe facial injuries Maimed people Disabled veterans Men with broken faces and lives


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Incendiary shells on Verdun


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Warfare was terrible : artillery shells, poison gas (which was used for the first time by Germans in April 1915), flame thrower, hand-to-hand fight.

Casualties From Gas - The Numbers

Brutality was within the minds and retaliatory feelings still persisted after 1918…


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Poisoned shells…


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

The living conditions on the front line were really dreadful(épouvantable), appalling(effroyable): soldiers floundered (patauger) in mud and when it rained, they could be up to their knees in water.

There was a lack of hygiene. In such unhygienic conditions, diseases were common.

The epidemics : germs in food and water led to typhus, cholera, dysentry. Everyone had lice. Rats ran everywhere.

The smell from corpses and sewage was terrible. Amputations were frequent.

The food was cold and often polluted with dust, mud or something worse sometimes.

Rotting bodies, corpses, horse carcasses... direct contact with death.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Death could happen at any time and took many forms

Soldiers were not anxious only, they were traumatized

Here, a vision of the No-Man’s Land... What do you feel in front of it?

Cannon fodder


Iv impacts of the war on the interwar period

IV. IMPACTS OF THE WAR ON THE INTERWAR PERIOD

Increased frustrations, lost generations.

Anger and agressivity

to avenge.

The addiction to violence disturbed people and paved the way for fascist regimes

The undefeated

army

F RANCE

GERMANY

The war to

end all wars…


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

A German machine gun squad

Patriotism: a culture…

Beyond pride and comic, what was the result?

Brainwashed people, indoctrination of the youth…

Belief in fatality.


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

Otto Dix

Dismembered veterans and people

Half-mechanic, half human

Half-living, half-dead


World war one the trench warfare and its consequences

The heavy-metal band Metallica released a song (« ONE ») in tribute to WW1 soldiers and a reference to 1971 Dalton Trumbo’s film « Johnny got his gun »


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