Linguistics week 13
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Linguistics week 13. Morphology 3. Hierarchical structure of words (Fromkin 84). unbelievable and unsystematic have only one structural analysis each: be lieve 相信 + - able 可相信 + un- 不可相信 Unlockable, Fromkin shows on 85-6, is morphologically ambiguous It can be understood in two ways

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Linguistics week 13

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Linguistics week 13

Linguistics week 13

Morphology 3


Hierarchical structure of words fromkin 84

Hierarchical structure of words (Fromkin 84)

  • unbelievable and unsystematic have only one structural analysis each:

    • believe相信 + -able可相信 + un-不可相信

  • Unlockable, Fromkin shows on 85-6, is morphologically ambiguous

    • It can be understood in two ways

    • Try to understand why, by looking at the trees


Reading and exercises

Reading and exercises

  • 69 to 74 (or further if you like)

  • Ex 2, 3, 4, 5A, 6

    • You will probably enjoy these!

  • You might like to take a look at my master’s thesis

    • It contains a short section on reduplication in Chinese

    • It has some ideas about compounding (for next week)

    • You will get an idea of the structure of a Western-style essay: study, especially, the way the references and bibliography work


Conversion to a different pos

Conversion to a different POS

  • Related words with different POS share the same form

    • Bank: He banked the money

    • Better:

      • You should respect your elders and betters

      • His performance is difficult to better

    • Empty: He emptied his glass in one gulp

  • Sometimes the stress changes

  • See how many examples you can think of


Zero morphs in inflectional morphology

Zero morphs (in inflectional morphology)

  • What’s the plural of sheep?

  • We can either say

    • {SHEEP}:{Ø} (the root plus a zero morph), or

    • The morpheme {SHEEP} realizes both singular and plural meanings

  • The same applies to the past and present tense of hit

  • A lot of linguists don’t like the idea of zero morphs, because it implies

    • {羊} singular, {羊};{Ø} plural (!)


Shortening processes

Shortening processes

  • Backformation (you usually need to know the history of the word)

    • Babysitter  babysit

    • Editor  edit

  • Clipping (this doesn’t involve complete morphemes)

    • Science-fiction  sci-fi

    • Information  info

  • Chinese stump compounds

    • 台大

    • 網咖

    • Are these backformations or clipped forms?


Compounding

Compounding

  • Relations between components

    • Fromkin 94-5 for some amusing examples

  • You have my ideas on Mandarin compounding

  • Endocentric compounds (modifier +head)

    • Boathouse, houseboat, blackbird, table-cloth, peanut, backpedal, gentleman, overeat

  • Exocentric compounds

    • Yellowhammer, scarecrow, hunchback, redneck


Neo classical compounds two bound morphemes

Neo-classical compounds: two bound morphemes

  • Biology {LIFE}+{WORDS}

  • Telephone {DISTANT}+{SOUND}

  • Introduce {IN}+{LEAD}

  • In a way, these are the closest English equivalent to Chiense words like 朋友

  • Group activity


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