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Citations . Citing and referencing in APA style . What is APA?. American Psychological Association O versees publication of books and journals P rovides a standard editorial style for manuscripts

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Citations

Citations

Citing and referencing in APA style


What is apa
What is APA?

  • American Psychological Association

    • Oversees publication of books and journals

    • Provides a standard editorial style for manuscripts

  • “Without APA style conventions, the time and effort required to review and edit manuscripts would prohibit timely and cost-effective publication and would make clear communication harder to achieve” (APA, 2001, pp. xxi).


Apa style language
APA Style: Language

Language in an APA paper is:

clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations

concise: condense information when you can

plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language


TONE

  • Scientific, not literary, writing

  • Be clear, concise, and formal

  • No long-winded sentences loaded with descriptive words

    • Example:

      • Sally Richards is an unfortunate person afflicted with bipolar disorder. Her emotions are like a rollercoaster, sometimes she’s really happy and sometimes she’s down in the dumps.

      • Sally Richards is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, a disorder characterized by dramatic mood swings.


Format
FORMAT

  • Always double space

  • 1 inch margins right, left, top, and bottom

  • 12 pt. Times New Roman


Citations1
Citations

  • What to cite

  • Any facts, statistics, graphs, and drawings that aren’t common knowledge

  • Quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words

  • Another person’s ideas, opinions, examples, or theory

  • Paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words


Citations2
Citations

  • In text citations

  • References


In text citations
In-text Citations

  • In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.

  • Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:

    • for paraphrases, the author’s last name, and the date of publication

    • for quotations and close paraphrases, the author’s last name, date of publication, and a page number


In text citations1
In-text Citations

Paraphrase without name:

Though feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).


In text citations2
In-text Citations

Paraphrase with name:

According to Fussel (1975), although feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions.


In text citations3
In-text Citations

Quote with name:

Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 11).


In text citations4
In-text Citations

Quote without name:

According to Caruth (1996), a traumatic response frequently entails ???.

It also causes a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 11).


Find the error
FIND THE ERROR

According to Jones, "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (1998, p. 199).


Find the error1
FIND THE ERROR

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time".


Find the error2
FIND THE ERROR

Though feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell 1975).


Find the error3
Find the Error

Hollingshead measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames (2002, p. 15).


Find the error4
Find the Error

Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group.”


Citations3
CITATIONS

One author, more than one studies:

Several experiments showed that APA style is hard to memorize (Jones, 1998, 2003)


Citations4
CITATIONS

One author, more than one studies, same year:

Two experiments by Jones (1998a, 1998b) showed that APA style is hard to memorize


Citations5
CITATIONS

When citing a work with two authors, use “and”

in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet “&” between their names in parenthesis.

According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate

(1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's

responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).

Some feminists researchers question that “women's

responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt &

Tate, 1997, p. 2).


Citations6
CITATIONS

When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis.

(Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

(Harklau et al., 1999)


Citations7
CITATIONS

When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.”

Smith et al. (2006) maintained that….

(Smith et al., 2006)


Citations8
CITATIONS

More than one books by more than one authors:

(Coldwell, 1999; Massa & Abrams, 2003; Moritz & Balmer, 2001)


Find the error5
FIND THE ERROR

Smith (1998, 1998) found in two separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure.


Find the error6
FIND THE ERROR

Smith (1998, 1998) found in two separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure.


Find the error7
FIND THE ERROR

According to feminist researchers Raitt& Tate (1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).


Find the error8
FIND THE ERROR

Some feminists researchers question that “women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raittand Tate, 1997, p. 2).


Citation
CITATION

When citing an organization, mention the organization the first time when you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation.

The data collected by the Food and Drug

Administration (2008) confirmed that…

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed … FDA’s experts tested…


Citation1
CITATION

When citing a work of unknown author, use the source’s full title in the signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters in quotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports.

According to “Indiana Joins Federal

Accountability System” (2008), …

Or,

(“Indiana,” 2008)


Citation2
CITATION

When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students

had difficulties with APA style (personal

communication, November 3, 2002).

Or,

The results of the internal inquiry will not be published (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).


Citation3
CITATION

When citing a book that was reprinted or republished, use this format:

Pinkerton (1844/2001) believed that democracy was a two-edged sword


Citation4
CITATION

If original year of publication is known, list that first, followed by slash and year of publication you used. For classical works, cite the translation year.

Plato (trans. 1988) maintained that…


Find the error9
FIND THE ERROR

The results of the internal inquiry will not be published (E. Robbins, telephone call, 2001).


Find the error10
FIND THE ERROR

Pinkerton (originally published in 1844, reprinted in 2001) believed that democracy was a two-edged sword. Socrates (400 B.C.) felt the same way.


References
REFERENCES

  • On a separate page after the body

  • Type “References” on first line, centered

  • List references in alphabetical order

  • First line is left justified, following lines within a reference are indented (5 spaces)

  • When listing authors use “&” not “and”


References1
REFERENCES

  • Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.

  • Double-space reference entries

  • Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames


References2
REFERENCES

Citing a book (single author):

Last name, Initials of first and middle names. (Publication year).

Title of book. City: Publisher.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York: BasicBooks.


References3
REFERENCES

Citing a periodical article (single author):

Last name, Initials of first and middle names. (Publication year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, Page numbers.

Page, E. (1968). The use of the computer in analyzing student essays. International Review of Education, 14, 253-263.


References4
REFERENCES

Citing a periodical article (single author):

Last name, Initials of first and middle names. (Publication year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, Page numbers.

Page, E. (1968). The use of the computer in analyzing student

essays. International Review of Education, 14, 253-263.


References5
REFERENCES

Citing multiple authors:

Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., West, S. G., Wolchik, S. A., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child

programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.


References6
REFERENCES

When an editor or editors are listed for a text, a typical reference entry will appear as follows:

Higgins, J. (Ed.). (1988). Psychology. New York: Norton.

Grice, H. P., & Gregory, R. L. (Eds.). (1968). Early language

development. New York: McGraw-Hill.


References7
REFERENCES

An English translation of a text typically appears as follows:

Freud, S. (1970). An outline of psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published

1940)


References8
REFERENCES

When listing two or more works by the same author in your reference list, the work with the earlier publication date should come first:

Brown, R. (1958). Words and things. New York: Free Press,

Macmillan.

Brown, R. (1965). Social psychology. New York: Free Press,

Macmillan.


References9
REFERENCES

If the publication date is the same, then the entries should appear alphabetically by title (excluding "A" or "The"). Lowercase letters ("a," "b," "c," etc.) are placed immediately after the year, within the parentheses:

Neisser, U. (1967a). Cognitive psychology. New York: Wiley.

Neisser, U. (1967b). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.


References10
REFERENCES

For internet articles or websites:

Author, A. A. (DATE). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to

optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment. Retrieved

November 20, 2000, from

http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html


References11
REFERENCES

For internet articles or websites:

Author, A. A. (DATE). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to

optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment. Retrieved

November 20, 2000, from

http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html


References12
REFERENCES

  • For internet articles or websites:

  • Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their

  • emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times.

  • Retrieved November 21, 2000, from

  • http://www.nytimes.com

  • In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. (1999,

  • February 16). New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000,


Find the error11
FIND THE ERROR

Bretschneider, J. G. & McCoy, N. L. (1968). Sexual Interest

and Behavior in Healthy 80- 102-Year-Olds. Archives of

Sexual Behavior, Vol. 14,pp. 343-350.


Find the error12
FIND THE ERROR

Seeing Red in November. (March 13, 2000). Newsweek, 199, 23. Retrieved ???? from http://www.newsweek.com


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