chapter 0
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 0

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Chapter 0 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 124 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 0. Syllabus Introduction to Remote Sensing Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu Department of Earth Sciences National Cheng Kung University Last updated: 29 September 2004. Syllabus. Course name: Introduction to Remote Sensing Credit: 3 Prerequisite: Undergraduate students

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 0' - magee


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 0
Chapter 0

Syllabus

Introduction to Remote Sensing

Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu

Department of Earth Sciences

National Cheng Kung University

Last updated: 29 September 2004

syllabus
Syllabus
  • Course name: Introduction to Remote Sensing
  • Credit: 3
  • Prerequisite:
    • Undergraduate students
    • Graduate students (approved by advisor)
    • Devoted and committed
  • Time:
    • Monday 14:10 – 15:00
    • Thursday 10:10 – 12:00
  • Place:
    • Department of Earth Sciences building room 3031
    • Remote sensing laboratory
  • Teaching Assistant: Conifer Chang
objectives
Objectives
  • Introduce students the fundamental concepts of remote sensing, as well as its limitation, characteristics and applications
  • Raising student’s interest in this subject, some video clips will be played in the class and an open discussion will be held afterwards
  • Encouraging students to ask questions and seek the answers as more as they can
  • Students are expected to complete some take-home questions and present the material they found in the class every week
  • Providing a roadmap for further study in the general field of Remote Sensing
textbook
Textbook
  • Remote sensing and image interpretation, 5th edition, T.M. Lillesand, R.W. Kiefer. and J. W. Chipman, John Wiley & Sons, 2004 (textbook)
  • Introduction to remote sensing, 3rd edition, J.B. Campbell, Taylor & Francis, 2002.
  • Physical principles of remote sensing, 2nd edition, W.G. Rees, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Introductory remote sensing - principles and concepts, 1st edition, P.J. Gibson and C.H. Power, Routledge, 2000.
  • Introductory remote sensing - digital image processing, 1st edition, P.J. Gibson and C.H. Power, Routledge, 2000
schedule foundation
Schedule – Foundation
  • Introduction
  • Space platform and orbit
  • Sensor
  • Digital data
  • Ground truth
  • Photogrammetry
  • Digital image processing
  • Geographic information system
  • Passive remote sensing
  • Active remote sensing
schedule application
Schedule – Application
  • Mapping
  • Water resource
  • Hydrology and oceanography
  • Land use
  • Agriculture
  • Environmental assessment
  • Natural disaster assessment
some questions
Some questions
  • Who am I?
    • http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~ccliu88/
  • Why are we here?
    • You and I, …
  • Why exams?
    • Acquire knowledge, …
  • Why taking lectures?
    • Save time and efforts, …
  • Why doing a project?
    • An interactive way of studying, …
grade
Grade
  • Homework 30%
    • No late hand-in
    • Email to TA
    • One day notice to present (once or twice)
  • Examination 40%
    • Midterm exam 20%
    • Final exam 20%
  • Project 30%
    • Report 15%
    • Presentation 15%
office hours
Office hours
  • Monday: 15:00 – 17:00
  • Friday: 10:00 – 12:00
  • Anytime if necessary
some issues
Some issues
  • Representative
    • Textbook
    • Seat
    • Email to TA ([email protected])
      • Name, Student ID number, Department/Year, Cell phone number, email address, (advisor’s name)
  • Introduce yourself
    • What you know about Remote Sensing
    • Why take this course
    • Background (education)
homework 1
Homework 1
  • Job hunting in Remote Sensing
  • The courses that are related to Remote Sensing in NCKU and/or other institutes in Taiwan
chapter 1
Chapter 1

Introduction

Introduction to Remote Sensing

Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu

Department of Earth Sciences

National Cheng Kung University

Last updated: 29 September 2004

definition
Definition
  • Satellite
    • Natural satellite
    • Man-made satellite
  • Type
    • Meteorology
    • Communication
    • Navigation and position
    • Earth resources
  • Remote sensing
    • The Science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation (Lillesand et al. 2004)
    • The practice of deriving information about the earth’s land and water surface sing images acquired from an overhead perspective, using electromagnetic radiation in one or more regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, reflected or emitted from the earth’s surface (Compbell 2002)
    • A complete collection of various definitions
  • Example
    • Reading process
      • word  eyes  brain  meaning
      • data  sensor  processing  information
history
History
  • Milestone of remote sensing (see Table 1.2 in Campbell 2002)
    • 1800
    • 1839
    • 1850 – 1860
    • 1873
    • 1909
    • 1939 – 1945
    • 1957
    • 1960 – 1970
    • 1972
    • 1978
    • 1986
    • 1990
remote sensing in taiwan roc
Remote sensing in Taiwan ROC
  • National Space Project – phase 1
    • 1991 – 2005
    • 19,700,000,000 NT dollars
    • ROCSAT-1
    • ROCSAT-2
    • ROCSAT-3
    • YamSAT
  • National Space Project – phase 2
    • 2005 – 2018
    • 30,000,000,000 NT dollars
    • ?
remote sensing in taiwan roc cont
Remote sensing in Taiwan ROC (cont.)
  • ROCSAT-1
    • Review
    • News
    • Missions
    • Status
    • Applications
  • ROCSAT-2
    • Characteristics
    • News
    • Missions
    • Scientific mission
    • Status
    • Applications
remote sensing in taiwan roc cont1
Remote sensing in Taiwan ROC (cont.)
  • ROCSAT-3
    • Missions
    • Status
    • Applications
  • YamSAT
basic concepts of remote sensing
Basic concepts of remote sensing
  • Methods of collecting data remotely
    • Variations in force distribution  e.g. gravity meter
    • Acoustic wave distribution  e.g. sonar
    • Electromagnetic energy distribution  e.g. eyes
      • Our focus: electromagnetic energy distribution
        • Fig 1.1: Generalized processes and elements involved in electromagnetic remote sensing of earth resources
          • data acquisition: a-f (§1.2 - §1.5)
          • data analysis: g-i (§1.6 - §1.10)
basic concepts of remote sensing cont
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy sources and radiation principles
    • Electromagnetic spectrum (Fig 1.3)  memorize
      • Spectrum :
        • UV (ultraviolet)
        • Vis (visible)
          • narrow range, strongest, most sensitive to human eyes
          • blue: 0.4~0.5mm
          • green: 0.5~0.6mm
          • red: 0.6~0.7mm
        • IR (infrared)
          • near-IR: 0.7~1.3 mm
          • mid-IR: 1.3~3.0 mm
          • thermal-IR: 3.0 mm~1mm  heat sensation
        • microwave: 1mm~1m
      • Wave theory: c = nl
        • c : speed of light (3x108 m/s)
        • n : frequency (cycle per second, Hz)
        • l : wavelength (m)
        • unit: micrometer mm = 10-6 m
basic concepts of remote sensing cont1
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy sources and radiation principles (cont.)
    • Electromagnetic spectrum (cont.)
      • Particle theory: Q = hn
        • Q: quantum energy (Joule)
        • h: Planck\'s constant (6.626x10-34 J sec)
        • n: frequency
      • Q = hn = hc/l 1/l
        • implication in remote sensing:lQ  viewing areaenough area
    • Stefan-Boltzmann law:
      • M = sT4
        • M: total radiant exitance from the surface of a material (watts m-2)
        • s: Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.6697x10-8 W m-2K-4)
        • T: absolute temperature (K) of the emitting material
      • Blackbody:
        • A hypothetical, ideal radiator totally absorbs and reemits all incident energy
basic concepts of remote sensing cont2
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy sources and radiation principles (cont.)
    • Spectral distribution of energy radiated from blackbodies of various temperatures (Fig 1.4)
      • Area  total radiant exitance M
        • T M (graphical illustration of S-B law)
      • Wien\'s displacement law:
        • lm=A/T  1/T
          • lm : dominant wavelength, wavelength of maximum spectral radiant (mm)
          • A: 2898 (K)
          • T: absolute temperature (K) of the emitting material
          • e.g. heating iron: dull red  orange  yellow  white
      • Sun: T6000K lm0.5mm (visible light)
      • incandescent lamp: T  3000K lm 1mm
        • "outdoor" film used indoors  "yellowish“
      • Earth: T  300K lm9.7mm  thermal energy  radiometer
        • l<3mm: reflected energy predominates
        • l>3mm: emitted energy prevails
      • Passive Active
basic concepts of remote sensing cont3
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy interaction in the atmosphere
    • Path length
      • space photography: 2 atmospheric thickness
      • airborne thermal sensor: very thin path length
      • sensor-by sensor
    • Scattering
      • molecular scale: d << l Rayleigh scatter
        • Rayleigh scatter effect  1/l4
        • "blue sky" and "golden sunset"
        • Rayleigh  "haze" imagery  filter (Chapter 2)
      • wavelength scale: d l Mie scatter
        • influence longer wavelength
        • dominated in slightly overcast sky
      • large scale: d >> l
        • e.g. water drop
        • nonselective scatter  f(l)
        • that\'s why fog and clod appear white
        • why dark clouds black?
basic concepts of remote sensing cont4
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy interaction in the atmosphere (cont.)
    • Absorption
      • absorbers in the atmosphere: water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone
      • Fig 1.5: Spectral characteristics of (a) energy sources (b) atmospheric effect (c) sensing systems
        • atmospheric windows
        • important considerations
          • sensor: spectral sensitivity and availability
          • windows: in the spectral range  sense
          • source: magnitude, spectral composition
basic concepts of remote sensing cont5
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy interactions with earth surface features
    • Fig 1.6: basic interactions between incident electromagnetic energy and an earth surface feature
      • EI(l) = ER(l) + EA(l) + ET(l)
        • incident = reflected + absorbed + transmitted
        • ER = ER(feature, l)  distinguish features  R.S.
        • in visible portion: ER(l)  color
        • most R.S.  reflected energy predominated  ER important!
    • Fig. 1.7: Specular versus diffuse reflectance
      • specular  diffuse (Lambertian)
      • surface roughness  incident wavelength: lI
      • if lI << surface height variations  diffuse
        • for R.S.  measure diffuse reflectance
      • spectral reflectance
basic concepts of remote sensing cont6
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy interactions with earth surface features (cont.)
    • Fig 1.8: Spectral reflectance curve (SRC)
      • object type  ribbon (envelope) rather than a single line
      • characteristics of SRC  choose wavelength
      • characteristics of SRC  choose sensor
        • near-IR photograph does a good job (Fig 1.9)
      • Many R.S. data analysis  mapping  spectrally separable  understand the spectral characteristics
basic concepts of remote sensing cont7
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy interactions with earth surface features (cont.)
    • Typical SRC (Fig 1.10)
    • vegetation:
      • pigment  chlorophyll  two valleys (0.45mm: blue; o.67mm: red)  green
        • if yellow leaves  r(red)  green + red
      • from 0.7 mm to 1.3 mm  minimum absorption (< 5%)  strong reflectance = f(internal structure of leaves)  discriminate species and detect vegetation stress
      • l > 1.3 mm  three water absorption bands (1.4, 1.9 and 2.7 mm)
        • water content r(l) 
        • r(l) = f(water content, leaf thickness)
    • soil
      • moisture content r(lwab) 
      • soil texture: coarse  drain  moisture 
      • surface roughness r
      • iron oxide, organic matter r
      • These are complex and interrelated variables
basic concepts of remote sensing cont8
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Energy interactions with earth surface features (cont.)
    • Water
      • near-IR: water r(lnear-IR) 
      • visible: very complex and interrelated
        • surface
        • bottom
        • material in the water
          • clear water  blue
          • chlorophyll  green
          • CDOM  yellow
      • pH, [O2], salinity, ...  (indirect) R.S.
basic concepts of remote sensing cont9
Basic concepts of remote sensing (cont.)
  • Spectral Response Pattern
    • spectrally separable  recognize feature
    • spectral signatures  absolute, unique
      • reflectance, emittance, radiation measurements, ...
    • response patterns  quantitative, distinctive
    • variability exists!
      • identify feature types spectrally  variability causes problems
      • identify the condition of various objects of the same type  we have to rely on these variabilities
    • minimize unwanted spectral variabilitymaximize variability when required!
    • spatial effect: e.g. different species of planttemporal effect: e.g. growth of plant  change detection
trends of remote sensing
Trends of remote sensing
  • Technology
  • Application
  • Job market
    • Case 1
    • Case 2
    • Case 3
organization of this course
Organization of this course
  • Image acquisition
  • Image processing and analysis
  • Applications
resources
Resources
  • Periodical journals
    • IEEE transaction on geosciences and remote sensing
    • International Journal of remote sensing
    • Remote sensing of environment
  • Web sites
  • Data/image
resources1
Resources
  • Books
    • Remote sensing and image interpretation, 5th edition, T.M. Lillesand, R.W. Kiefer. and J. W. Chipman, John Wiley & Sons, 2004 (textbook)
    • Introduction to remote sensing, 3rd edition, J.B. Campbell, Taylor & Francis, 2002.
    • Physical principles of remote sensing, 2nd edition, W.G. Rees, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
    • Introductory remote sensing - principles and concepts, 1st edition, P.J. Gibson and C.H. Power, Routledge, 2000.
    • Introductory remote sensing - digital image processing, 1st edition, P.J. Gibson and C.H. Power, Routledge, 2000
ad