Chemical formulas and chemical compounds
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Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds. Chapter Seven Unit Three. Review the Periodic Table. Horizontal rows – periods Vertical rows – groups or families Metals – left of stairstep and at the bottom Non-metals – right of stairstep Metalloids – 6 elements touching stairstep.

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Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds

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Chemical formulas and chemical compounds

Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds

Chapter Seven

Unit Three


Review the periodic table

Review the Periodic Table

Horizontal rows – periods

Vertical rows – groups or families

Metals – left of stairstep and at the bottom

Non-metals – right of stairstep

Metalloids – 6 elements touching stairstep


Characteristics of metals

Characteristics of Metals

  • Shiny (have luster) (most are solids)

  • Silvery or gray colored (except gold and copper)

  • Conduct electricity (gold is best along w/Ag, Cu, and Al)

  • Ductile – can be pulled into a wire

  • Malleable – hammered into a thin sheet (Au most, then Ag and Cu)

  • Always lose e- from their outer energy level to form positive ions called cations

  • Place charges at top of groups (+1 +/-4) – this is the # of e- in the outer energy level that can be lost


Characteristics of non metals

Characteristics of Non-metals

  • No luster, powdery, liquid or gaseous (not solids)

  • Colored rather than silvery

  • Nonconductors of electricity

  • Not ductile

  • Not malleable

  • Always gain e- into their outer energy level until they have 8; form negative ions called anions

  • Place charges at top of groups (+/-4 -1); this is the # of e- needed to be gained to reach 8


Oxidation numbers

Oxidation Numbers

  • Also called oxidation states

  • Indicate general distribution of e- among bonded atoms

  • Useful in naming compounds, writing formulas, and balancing equations

  • These #s are most often = to ionic charge


Chemical names and formulas

Chemical Names and Formulas

  • Chemical formulas form the basis of the language of chemistry.

  • They reveal information about the substance.


Binary ionic compounds

Binary Ionic Compounds

  • Binary – two different elements

  • Ionic – metal with a non-metal

  • # of negative and positive charges must be equal (no net charge)

  • Cation (metal) is always written first (+ charge)

  • Ionic charge is never included


Binary molecular compounds

Binary Molecular Compounds

  • Binary – 2 elements

  • Molecular – compounds of only non-metals

  • One of the non-metals assumes a + oxidation # and is written first

  • More electronegative element remains negative

  • These compounds are named differently because there is no metal present


Chemical formulas and chemical compounds

Acid

-a distinct type of molecular compound; most are binary or oxyacids

Binary Acids

Oxyacids

-acids that consist of 2 elements, usually hydrogen and one of the halogens (F, Cl, Br, I)

-acids that contain H, O, and a 3rd element, usually a nonmetal (HNO3)


Ionic salts

Ionic Salts

  • Ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid (NaCl, Na2SO4, LiNO3)

  • Some salts contain anions in which one or more H atoms from the acid are retained; such anions are named by adding the word hydrogen or the prefix bi- to the anion name Ex: (H2SO4 HSO4-) sulfuric acid to hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate ion


Hydrates

Hydrates

  • Written as a correct ionic formula followed by a dot and then some number of molecules of water (CuSO4 5H20)

  • You need to be able to recognize these and know how to name them.


Empirical formula

Empirical Formula

  • consists of the symbols for the elements combined in a compound, with subscripts showing the smallest whole-# mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound

  • for ionic compounds, formula unit is usually compound’s empirical formula

  • for molecular compounds, empirical formula doesn’t necessarily indicate actual #s of atoms present in the molecule


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