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Development Policy and Management. PIA 2501 Week Seven. Reminder: Development Themes. Development Theory Development Planning and Management Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Human Resource Development Donors and Development. The Shift in Development Priorities.

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Reminder development themes
Reminder: Development Themes

  • Development Theory

  • Development Planning and Management

  • Governance, Local Government and Civil Society

  • Human Resource Development

  • Donors and Development


The shift in development priorities
The Shift in Development Priorities

Three Post-September 11 Issues:

  • Governance

  • NGOs and Civil Society

  • Human Resource Development


Theme three
Theme Three

Governance,

Local Government and Civil Society



Governance local administration and development

Governance:Local Administration and Development

Myths of the Grass Roots


Development themes authors
Development Themes-Authors

I. Planning vs. Implementation- The Limits of Governance

  • Jeffery Pressman

  • Naomi Caiden

  • Aaron Wildavsky


Development themes
Development Themes

II. Gender and Development- A Democracy issue

  • Isabel Allende

  • Sue Ellen Charlton

  • Kathleen Staudt


Governance themes
Governance Themes

III. Cultural Issues: Clash of Civilizations and Chaos Theories

  • V.S. Naipaul

  • Samuel Huntington

  • Monte Palmer

  • Jorge Luis Borges



Governance and sovereignty
Governance and Sovereignty

"[T]ransformation (and globalization) has led to a reinvention of government and what it does“

- Anonymous



Governance an overview of issues
Governance: an Overview of Issues

  • Focus of International Development: Post-2001:

    “Democracy and Governance”

    Human Rights (First but not second and third)

  • Basic Terms: The Environment of Development


Terms
Terms

Governance

Manner in which the state is created, modified or overthrown


Governance and the state
Governance and theState

  • Sovereignty

    • Authority to Govern (Ostrom)

  • Presumption of Independence

    • A National Government status given by International Community and by use of International Law

      "States will necessarily remain central actors in development policy and development management."

      - Milton Esman


Governance issues
Governance Issues

Local Government

  • Primary unit of government that has both political leadership and bureaucratic structures


Governance issues1
Governance Issues

Civil Society

  • Associations and organizations that are beyond the clan and the family and short of the state (does not include state organs)


Civil society
Civil Society

  • Definition:

    • Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests

      "Beyond the family but short of the state”

      - Hegal

      "Human Rights, Basic Needs and the Stuff of Citizenship”

      - First vs. Second generation



Democracy
Democracy

Two Views


Democracy what is it
Democracy: What is it?

"It is only when men learn what it means to be free, and struggle to maintain proper limits upon the exercise of authority so that no one is allowed to become master of the others that human beings have the possibility of creating mutual relationships which they may freely enter and leave as they seek mutually productive patterns of human development." - Vincent Ostrom



Democracy what is it1
Democracy: What is it?

“The policy makers have rational interests--to develop their countries, to improve the condition of their people, to acquire or stay in power, or to steal as much as possible.”

Peter Berger, Pyramids of Sacrifice


Peter l berger
Peter L. Berger

Central to Peter Berger's work is the relationship between society and the individual


Types of democracy terms
Types of Democracy: Terms

  • Direct Democracy

    • Actual direct participation of a population in decision-making about laws and regulations

      • Town hall or village model

  • Indirect Democracy

    • Some form of representative democracy

  • Pluralism

    • Existence of various diverse interest associations, individuals and groups within society (Focus on Tolerance)



Types of democracy cont
Types of Democracy, cont.

  • Polyarchy

    • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues (Structured Pluralism)

  • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism)

    • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy


Robert dahl and polyarchy
Robert Dahland Polyarchy


James madison and democracy the warning
James Madison and Democracy: The Warning

  • The problem with majorities

  • Tyranny

  • Factions


Direct democracy vs representative democracy
Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy

  • Problem with Populism

    • Mob Justice

  • Minority rights

  • Shifting majorities

  • Problem with Plebiscites

  • Size and the Need for Indirect Representation


Governance and sovereignty1
Governance and Sovereignty

  • Rules of the Game politics:

    • Zero/sum vs. sum/sum politics

  • "Splintering”

    • Break up of states--centrifugal forces

  • Interest Group Liberalism: The goal?

  • Civil Society as organizational

    • Not the individual or the mass



Governance and sovereignty2
Governance and Sovereignty

  • The need for apathy?

  • Constitutional vs. Social stability

  • Institutional structures:

    • Checks and balances

    • The Institutional State

      • What is the "Institutional State?” Why is it important?


Decentralized governance
Decentralized Governance

  • Subsidiarity- higher units of Government should not do what can be done by lower units



What local government does
What Local Government Does

  • Services: local roads, sanitation, water, basic health, primary education

  • Depend Upon: Skilled Personnel

    • Fiscal/budget allocation

      • Taxes and transfers

    • Planning

      • Strategic priorities

    • Managing

      • Implementing


Local government and the local state
Local Government and theLocal State

  • Local State vs. Local Government

  • Functional vs. Territorial Control

  • Devolution

    • Urban vs. Rural

    • Urban linked with Rural


State societal linkages

Weak

Weak

Strong

Strong

State-mezzo Weak

Strong

State Societal Linkages

Central State - Macro

SOFT STATE…………………………….PREDATORY STATE

Mono-State…...INTERGOVERNMENTAL Systems in place.…..Local State

Civil Society - Micro

Local - SOFT STATE….………………LOCAL GOVERNMENT


Local government and development the goal
Local Government and Development: The Goal

Bottom Up Participation Planning vs. politics: myths of participation


The goal
The Goal

Learning Process Model--“incrementalism“- theoretical alternatie

  • Bottom up and interactive

  • Village development committees vs. local planning officers

  • Paternalism of the district officer vs. patronage of local level minor networks

  • Street level bureaucrats vs. agents from center


The primary unit of government
The Primary Unit of Government

  • Municipality: Lowest level with Bureaucrats

  • English/American

    • Town vs. county (Rural vs. Urban)

  • Continental European

    • Commune (no distinction between rural and urban)


Decentralization and local government models
Decentralization and Local Government: Models

  • Devolution

  • Deconcentration

  • Delegation

  • Privatization


Deconcentration
Deconcentration

  • Functional vs. Prefectoral

  • Prefectoral integrated

  • Prefectoral unintegrated


Control systems
Control Systems

Functional

Home Affairs

Local Govt.

Public Works

Agriculture

Education

Labor

Council

Public Works

Office

District Ag.

Office

District Ed.

Office

District

Labor

Office


Control systems1
Control Systems

Prefectoral - Integrated

Interior

Local Govt.

Public Works

Agriculture

Education

Labor

District

Office

District Ag.

Office

District Ed.

Office

District

Labor

Office

Public Works

Office

Council/Chief


Control systems2
Control Systems

Prefectoral - Unintegrated

Interior

Local Govt.

Public Works

Agriculture

Education

Labor

Police

District

Office

Police

Council/

Chief

Public Works

Office

District Ag.

Office

District Ed.

Office

District

Labor

Office


Books of the week
Books of the Week

  • Janine Wedel, Collision and Collusion

  • Deborah Scroggins, Emma’s War


Our authors janine wedel and deborah scroggins
Our AuthorsJanine Wedel and Deborah Scroggins



Case studies
“Case Studies”

  • Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, “The Interview”

  • Isabel Allende, “Clarrisa”

  • Jorge Luis Borges, “The Book of Sand”



Discussion
Discussion

What Does the Reading (Thus Far) Tell Us About Development Policy and Management?

  • John Seitz

  • Michael Edwards

  • John Rapley





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