Development policy and management
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Development Policy and Management. PIA 2501 Week Seven. Reminder: Development Themes. Development Theory Development Planning and Management Governance, Local Government and Civil Society Human Resource Development Donors and Development. The Shift in Development Priorities.

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Development policy and management

Development Policy and Management

PIA 2501

Week Seven


Reminder development themes

Reminder: Development Themes

  • Development Theory

  • Development Planning and Management

  • Governance, Local Government and Civil Society

  • Human Resource Development

  • Donors and Development


The shift in development priorities

The Shift in Development Priorities

Three Post-September 11 Issues:

  • Governance

  • NGOs and Civil Society

  • Human Resource Development


Theme three

Theme Three

Governance,

Local Government and Civil Society


Governance

Governance


Governance local administration and development

Governance:Local Administration and Development

Myths of the Grass Roots


Development themes authors

Development Themes-Authors

I. Planning vs. Implementation- The Limits of Governance

  • Jeffery Pressman

  • Naomi Caiden

  • Aaron Wildavsky


Development themes

Development Themes

II. Gender and Development- A Democracy issue

  • Isabel Allende

  • Sue Ellen Charlton

  • Kathleen Staudt


Governance themes

Governance Themes

III. Cultural Issues: Clash of Civilizations and Chaos Theories

  • V.S. Naipaul

  • Samuel Huntington

  • Monte Palmer

  • Jorge Luis Borges


Jorge luis borges

JORGE LUIS BORGES


Governance and sovereignty

Governance and Sovereignty

"[T]ransformation (and globalization) has led to a reinvention of government and what it does“

- Anonymous


Reinventing government

Reinventing Government?


Governance an overview of issues

Governance: an Overview of Issues

  • Focus of International Development: Post-2001:

    “Democracy and Governance”

    Human Rights (First but not second and third)

  • Basic Terms: The Environment of Development


Terms

Terms

Governance

Manner in which the state is created, modified or overthrown


Governance and the state

Governance and theState

  • Sovereignty

    • Authority to Govern (Ostrom)

  • Presumption of Independence

    • A National Government status given by International Community and by use of International Law

      "States will necessarily remain central actors in development policy and development management."

      - Milton Esman


Governance issues

Governance Issues

Local Government

  • Primary unit of government that has both political leadership and bureaucratic structures


Governance issues1

Governance Issues

Civil Society

  • Associations and organizations that are beyond the clan and the family and short of the state (does not include state organs)


Civil society

Civil Society

  • Definition:

    • Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests

      "Beyond the family but short of the state”

      - Hegal

      "Human Rights, Basic Needs and the Stuff of Citizenship”

      - First vs. Second generation


Georg wilhelm friedrich hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


Democracy

Democracy

Two Views


Democracy what is it

Democracy: What is it?

"It is only when men learn what it means to be free, and struggle to maintain proper limits upon the exercise of authority so that no one is allowed to become master of the others that human beings have the possibility of creating mutual relationships which they may freely enter and leave as they seek mutually productive patterns of human development." - Vincent Ostrom


Vincent ostrom tej kumari mahat and elinor ostrom

Vincent Ostrom, Tej Kumari Mahat and Elinor Ostrom


Democracy what is it1

Democracy: What is it?

“The policy makers have rational interests--to develop their countries, to improve the condition of their people, to acquire or stay in power, or to steal as much as possible.”

Peter Berger, Pyramids of Sacrifice


Peter l berger

Peter L. Berger

Central to Peter Berger's work is the relationship between society and the individual


Types of democracy terms

Types of Democracy: Terms

  • Direct Democracy

    • Actual direct participation of a population in decision-making about laws and regulations

      • Town hall or village model

  • Indirect Democracy

    • Some form of representative democracy

  • Pluralism

    • Existence of various diverse interest associations, individuals and groups within society (Focus on Tolerance)


New england town hall

New England Town Hall


Types of democracy cont

Types of Democracy, cont.

  • Polyarchy

    • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues (Structured Pluralism)

  • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism)

    • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy


Robert dahl and polyarchy

Robert Dahland Polyarchy


James madison and democracy the warning

James Madison and Democracy: The Warning

  • The problem with majorities

  • Tyranny

  • Factions


Direct democracy vs representative democracy

Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy

  • Problem with Populism

    • Mob Justice

  • Minority rights

  • Shifting majorities

  • Problem with Plebiscites

  • Size and the Need for Indirect Representation


Governance and sovereignty1

Governance and Sovereignty

  • Rules of the Game politics:

    • Zero/sum vs. sum/sum politics

  • "Splintering”

    • Break up of states--centrifugal forces

  • Interest Group Liberalism: The goal?

  • Civil Society as organizational

    • Not the individual or the mass


The nature of conflict

The Nature of Conflict


Governance and sovereignty2

Governance and Sovereignty

  • The need for apathy?

  • Constitutional vs. Social stability

  • Institutional structures:

    • Checks and balances

    • The Institutional State

      • What is the "Institutional State?” Why is it important?


Decentralized governance

Decentralized Governance

  • Subsidiarity- higher units of Government should not do what can be done by lower units


The principle

The Principle


What local government does

What Local Government Does

  • Services: local roads, sanitation, water, basic health, primary education

  • Depend Upon: Skilled Personnel

    • Fiscal/budget allocation

      • Taxes and transfers

    • Planning

      • Strategic priorities

    • Managing

      • Implementing


Local government and the local state

Local Government and theLocal State

  • Local State vs. Local Government

  • Functional vs. Territorial Control

  • Devolution

    • Urban vs. Rural

    • Urban linked with Rural


State societal linkages

Weak

Weak

Strong

Strong

State-mezzo Weak

Strong

State Societal Linkages

Central State - Macro

SOFT STATE…………………………….PREDATORY STATE

Mono-State…...INTERGOVERNMENTAL Systems in place.…..Local State

Civil Society - Micro

Local - SOFT STATE….………………LOCAL GOVERNMENT


Local government and development the goal

Local Government and Development: The Goal

Bottom Up Participation Planning vs. politics: myths of participation


The goal

The Goal

Learning Process Model--“incrementalism“- theoretical alternatie

  • Bottom up and interactive

  • Village development committees vs. local planning officers

  • Paternalism of the district officer vs. patronage of local level minor networks

  • Street level bureaucrats vs. agents from center


The primary unit of government

The Primary Unit of Government

  • Municipality: Lowest level with Bureaucrats

  • English/American

    • Town vs. county (Rural vs. Urban)

  • Continental European

    • Commune (no distinction between rural and urban)


Decentralization and local government models

Decentralization and Local Government: Models

  • Devolution

  • Deconcentration

  • Delegation

  • Privatization


Deconcentration

Deconcentration

  • Functional vs. Prefectoral

  • Prefectoral integrated

  • Prefectoral unintegrated


Control systems

Control Systems

Functional

Home Affairs

Local Govt.

Public Works

Agriculture

Education

Labor

Council

Public Works

Office

District Ag.

Office

District Ed.

Office

District

Labor

Office


Control systems1

Control Systems

Prefectoral - Integrated

Interior

Local Govt.

Public Works

Agriculture

Education

Labor

District

Office

District Ag.

Office

District Ed.

Office

District

Labor

Office

Public Works

Office

Council/Chief


Control systems2

Control Systems

Prefectoral - Unintegrated

Interior

Local Govt.

Public Works

Agriculture

Education

Labor

Police

District

Office

Police

Council/

Chief

Public Works

Office

District Ag.

Office

District Ed.

Office

District

Labor

Office


Books of the week

Books of the Week

  • Janine Wedel, Collision and Collusion

  • Deborah Scroggins, Emma’s War


Our authors janine wedel and deborah scroggins

Our AuthorsJanine Wedel and Deborah Scroggins


Picard socialism and the field administrator

Picard, “Socialism and the Field Administrator”


Case studies

“Case Studies”

  • Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, “The Interview”

  • Isabel Allende, “Clarrisa”

  • Jorge Luis Borges, “The Book of Sand”


Ruth prawer jhabvala and isabel allende

Ruth Prawer Jhabvala and Isabel Allende


Discussion

Discussion

What Does the Reading (Thus Far) Tell Us About Development Policy and Management?

  • John Seitz

  • Michael Edwards

  • John Rapley


John seitz michael edwards and john rapley

John Seitz, Michael Edwards and John Rapley


Development policy and management

  • Ten Minute Break


Development policy and management

  • Discussion


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