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Plate 49. Establishment of Disease. Skin. Epithelium – outer part of skin Epi : “on” Theli: “tissue” Densely packed cells protect body from invading pathogens. Skin. Connective tissue – provides cohesion and support to internal structure of the body Fibers provide flexibility and form.

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Plate 49

Plate 49

Establishment of Disease


Skin

  • Epithelium – outer part of skin

  • Epi: “on”

  • Theli: “tissue”

  • Densely packed cells protect body from invading pathogens


Skin

  • Connective tissue – provides cohesion and support to internal structure of the body

  • Fibers provide flexibility and form



Phagocytes
Phagocytes

  • After a foreign substance has ruptured the skin, phagocyte cells migrate to the site

  • Phagein: “to eat”

  • Cyte: “cell”

  • Phagocytes – group of immune cells specialized in “eating” potential pathogens

  • Pus from an infection is primarily dead phagocytes


Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis

  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__phagocytosis.html


Bacterial enzymes
Bacterial Enzymes

  • Bacteria use enzymes to help establish themselves in the body:

    • Coagulase

    • Hyaluronidase

    • Streptokinase

    • Hemolysis


Coagulase
Coagulase

  • Coagulase is secreted by some bacteria (ex: Staphylococcus)

  • Causes proteins in blood to clot

  • Commonly found in Gram positive bacteria

  • Blood clot surrounds bacteria and protects against phagocytes


Hyaluronidase
Hyaluronidase

  • Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan) is found in epithelial and connective tissues and acts as a “goo” in tissue repair

  • Bacteria (ex: Clostridium) secrete hyaluronidase enzyme to breakdown hyaluronic acid

  • It allows bacteria to infiltrate skin barrier

  • Fun fact: sperm secrete hyaluronidase when they come into contact with an egg


Streptokinase
Streptokinase

  • Some bacteria (ex: Streptococcus) secrete streptokinase enzyme to dissolve blood clots

  • Allows bacteria to spread past the location of initial infection

  • Also used in heart attack victims to dissolve arterial blood clots in the heart


Hemolysin
Hemolysin

  • Some bacteria secrete hemolysin that breakdown cell membranes of red blood cells

  • Lowers oxygen levels in blood, improving conditions for anaerobic bacteria (ex: Clostridium)

  • Lowers activity of white blood cells and protects bacteria

  • Can result in anemia (low levels of RBC)


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