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COURSE AIMS. OHT 1. Recognise how cultural differences impact on the process of building effective international relationships Identify specific areas of cultural diversity (linked to communication style, business values and working practices)

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slide1

COURSE AIMS

OHT

1

  • Recognise how cultural differences impact on the
  • process of building effective international relationships
  • Identify specific areas of cultural diversity (linked to
  • communication style, business values and working
  • practices)
  • Agree on how best to work in multicultural teams,
  • communicate across cultures and manage the
  • distance factor
  • Identify and develop the personal qualities required
  • for working effectively across cultures

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide2

PREVIEWING TASK

OHT

2

  • What process of globalisation is this company
  • seeking to go through?
  • What is the role of Morel in this process?
  • What advantage will the company attain from
  • moving to a global structure in taking its new
  • product to the market?

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide3

ICEBERG THEORY

OHT

3

B1

B2

V2

V1

B = Behaviour (what you do and say)

V = Values (beliefs about what is right to do and say)

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide4

THE MIS FACTOR

OHT

4

MIStrust

MISperception

MISevaluation

MISinterpretation

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide5

TYPES OF CULTURAL GROUPS

OHT

5

  • Nationality • Age
  • Gender • Physical ability
  • Socio-economic class • Sexual orientation
  • Political group • Organisational
  • Educational level/type • Functional
  • Religion • Manchester United supporters

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide6

TOLERANCE ZONES

OHT

6

Culture A

Culture B

number of people

Relationship focus essential before task is typical

Task focus before (optional) relationship focus is typical

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide7

POLYCHRONIC PREFERENCE

OHT

7

  • Belief:There are various ways to achieve our objectives so we should:
  • Keep options open as long as possible
  • Manage activities in parallel
  • Discuss things generally first
  • Be open to new inputs at all times
  • Value commitment to special people
  • Respond to changing priorities
  • Use schedules as guidelines
  • Invest time in people
  • Allow plans to evolve
  • Value multi-tasking behaviour Loosely based on the concepts of Edward T. Hall

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide8

UNIVERSALISTS v PARTICULARISTS

OHT

8

  • PARTICULARISTS
  • Belief:Obligations to particular people and special circumstances come before abstract rules. Without exceptions, we weaken the human ties we depend on:
  • Trust placed in networks of relationships
  • Tasks are assigned to people
  • Flexible customer focus
  • Customisation & localisation
  • Particular circumstances & requirements
  • Appropriateness & contextualisation
  • Subjective measurement
  • Exceptions and disparity (‘Yes, but…’)
  • Oil painting – opinions convince
  • Personal networking
  • Art of management
  • UNIVERSALISTS
  • Belief:Common standards and rules should be followed and everyone should be treated the same. Exceptions weaken the system we depend on:
  • Trust placed in systems and models
  • People are assigned to tasks
  • Core business focus
  • Standardisation & globalisation
  • Fairness & consistency
  • Transparency & simplification
  • Objective measurement
  • Similarity and linking (‘Yes, and…’)
  • Black & white photo – facts convince
  • Analytical marketing
  • Science of management
  • Loosely based on the concepts of Fons Trompenaars

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide9

INDIVIDUALISTS v COLLECTIVISTS

OHT

9

  • COLLECTIVISTS
  • Values of harmony, face-saving,
  • meeting in-group’s needs
  • ‘WE’ identity
  • Group goals
  • Group loyalty provides security
  • Do not distinguish own priorities and
  • opinions from others in the group
  • Conflict should be avoided as it disturbs
  • group harmony and so motivation
  • Control through group shame
  • Strong sense of in-group/out-group,
  • high sense of personal obligation to
  • in-group members and low or no
  • obligation to out-group members
  • Private life is invaded by groups
  • INDIVIDUALISTS
  • Values of freedom, honesty,
  • self-actualisation
  • ‘I’ identity
  • Individual goals
  • Look after yourself and immediate family
  • Distinguish own priorities and
  • opinions from others in the group
  • Conflict is inevitable and if well
  • channelled can lead to positive outcomes
  • Control through personal guilt
  • Low sense of in-group/out-group,
  • individuals form groups based on common
  • interests or tasks; low sense of personal
  • obligation to members of the group
  • • There is a basic right to privacy
  • Loosely based on the concepts of H. Triandis, S. Ting-Toomey and G. Hofstede

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide10

GAVIN’S STATE OF MIND

OHT

10

GAVIN

I was beginning to feel that I was pushing water uphill.

GAVIN

I mean, it was easy getting Morel to this stage…everyone on

my team in England was singing from the same song sheet.

But here, we had rock, jazz, classical…you name it …

everyone brought their own piece of music with them…

DARREN

A chance to lead an international team…

Think of the challenge, Gavin…

GAVIN

I’m thinking of the headaches!

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide11

HIGH v LOW CONTEXT

OHT

11

TEXT

message

message

CONTEXT

Lower Context

Higher Context

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide12

HIGH v LOW CONTEXT

OHT

12

LOW CONTEXT

Belief:Appropriate communication depends

on using concrete

logical, unambiguous task-orientated language

(the text), so we should be explicit and transparent (personal relationships are nice

but not necessary).

HIGH CONTEXT

Belief:Appropriate communication depends

on decoding the situation, the relationship, the non-verbal behaviour

(the context), so we should invest time in getting to know people to communicate efficiently using a shared code.

Loosely based on the concepts of Edward T. Hall

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide13

High Context

OHT

13

Mexico

The Middle East

Philippines

Brazil

India

Singapore

Greece

France

Austria

Scandinavia

Israel

Swiss Germans

Japan, Indonesia

Africa (all)

China

Malaysia Spain

Italy

Costa Rica

England

Australia USA

Germany

The Netherlands

Low Context

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide14

COMMUNICATION MEDIA

OHT

14

  • Telephone (including conference calls)
  • Video conference
  • Email
  • Answering machines/voice mail
  • Face-to-face meetings
  • SMS
  • Fax
  • Groupware (eg discussion forums)

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide15

EMAIL FEEDBACK ORIENTATIONS

OHT

15

  • LOWER CONTEXT
  • ‘I’ have a problem
  • with ‘You’ issue
  • Task focus is high
  • Feedback delivered
  • within email message
  • Direct/explicit language
  • Clarity important
  • HIGHER CONTEXT
  • Problem is a ‘We’ issue
  • – no finger pointing
  • Relationship focus is high
  • Feedback to be delivered
  • in higher context mode
  • Indirect/implicit language
  • Face saving important

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide16

EXAMPLE EMAIL 1

OHT

16

From: X

To: Y

CC:

Subject: Urgent problem

Dear…,

I’m very rushed, so I need to keep the information very short and direct. I’m sorry, but I’m very disappointed and unsatisfied with

the way you are working on this project. It does not meet at all the

criteria we agreed upon from the start. You really need to do this

in a much more professional way and according to our goals and

criteria. Otherwise we really have a problem. I suggest that we will have a talk tomorrow. Then I will explain clearly what I mean,

in case you don’t know yet, but I’m sure you are aware.

Speak to you tomorrow at 14.00

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide17

EXAMPLE EMAIL 2

OHT

17

From: X

To: Y

CC:

Subject: A request

I had problems with my emails for the past few weeks and I lost several of them. Could it be possible for you to send me again

the information you have about the project X?

I’m sorry for the inconvenience.

Regards

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide18

EXAMPLE EMAIL 3

OHT

18

From: X

To: Y

CC:

Subject: A slight worry…

Dear …,

I’m a little concerned on the basis of my recent experience

that we might be missing some important information from

your area

We all agree that it was critical to share information

comprehensively and quickly.

Can I perhaps suggest we meet on… to discuss a way forward?

Thanks

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide19

BRITISH INDIRECTNESS

OHT

19

From: X

To: Y

CC:

Subject: A slight worry…

Dear …,

I’m a little concerned on the basis of my recent experience

that we might be missing some important information from

your area

We all agree that it was critical to share information

comprehensively and quickly.

Can I perhaps suggest we meet on… to discuss a way forward?

Thanks

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide20

GAVIN’S EMAIL TO ALBERTO AND EVA

OHT

20

From: Gavin

To: Alberto; Eva

CC: Darren; Jack; Mohammed; Jesse

Subject: A slight hitch with the Market Research

Dear Alberto and Eva

Thank you for your input, however, there seems to be

a bit of a problem with the European market research.

I think we might want to consider cooling some of the

marketing activities until everything is OK.

I’ll be in touch soon.

All the best

Gavin

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

slide21

EMOTIONAL IMPACT

OF CULTURE SHOCK

OHT

21

  • Anxiety
  • Disconfirmed expectations
  • Exclusion
  • Ambiguity
  • Confrontation with one’s prejudices
  • Based on Richard Brislin

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: WORKING SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES

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