The environmental impacts of tourism
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The Environmental Impacts of Tourism. The Heritage Environmental Rating Programme. “……any person that spends more than one night away from their place of residence….” UN World Tourism Organisation. The Types of Impact from Tourism. Environmental Socio Cultural Economic.

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The Environmental Impacts of Tourism

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The environmental impacts of tourism

The Environmental Impacts of Tourism

The Heritage Environmental Rating Programme


The environmental impacts of tourism

“……any person that spends more than one night away from their place of residence….”

UN World Tourism Organisation


The types of impact from tourism

The Types of Impact from Tourism

  • Environmental

  • Socio Cultural

  • Economic


Environmental impacts

Environmental Impacts


The global eco impacts of tourism

The Global Eco-Impacts of Tourism

  • Loss of Biological Diversity

    • Excessive land use leads to impacts on vegetation; wildlife; mountain, marine and coastal environments.

    • Introduction of exotic species

  • Depletion of the Ozone Layer

    • Refrigerants; propellants; air travel

    • By 2015, half of annual Ozone destruction will be from air travel

  • Climate Change

    • Tourism accounts for 50% of traffic movements worldwide

    • Air traffic accounts for 2.5% of CO² production

    • 594 million travelers in 1996 – 1.6 billion by 2020


National eco impacts of tourism

National Eco-Impacts of Tourism

  • Depletion of Natural Resources:-

    • Water Resources

    • Local Resources

    • Land degradation

  • Pollution:-

    • Air pollution and noise

    • Solid waste and littering

    • Sewage

    • Aesthetic pollution

  • Physical Impacts:-

    • Construction and Infrastructure Development

    • Deforestation and unsustainable use of land

    • Marina developments


South african tourism statistics

South African Tourism Statistics

  • Tourism arrivals 2005/6 : 7.2 million

  • Tourism growth expectations: 8.25% p.a.

  • Main tourist attractions:

    • Cape Town and Robben Island

    • Garden Route

    • Johannesburg

    • Kruger National Park

  • Average stay per visitor in 2006: 2.6 days

  • Number of accommodation establishments: 23 000


Significant sites and locations

Significant Sites and Locations

  • World Heritage Sites:

    • Cradle of Mankind – Gauteng

    • Greater St Lucia Wetland Park – KZN

    • Robben Island – Western Cape

    • Drakensberg Park – KZN

    • Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape – Limpopo

    • Cape Floral Kingdom – Western Cape

    • Vredefort Dome – Free State

  • Other Sites of Significance in South Africa:

    • Bo-Kaap; Tsitsikama Route; Namaqualand; Aliwal Shoal; Wild Coast & Pondoland; Kalahari National Park; Lowveld Escarpment; SA National Parks;


South africa and mass tourism

South Africa and Mass Tourism

  • Robben Island – A Case Study

    • Visitor numbers increased from 9000 in 1996 to over 360 000 in 2003

    • Environmental degradation included:

      • Collapse of sewage and water systems

      • Species destruction from uncontrolled access

      • Waste and litter increase

      • Energy consumption and resultant contamination

      • Poor environmental control and introduction of alien species

      • Infrastructure development in conflict with EIA


The hidden cost of tourism

The Hidden Cost of Tourism

Every visitor uses or creates

  • 450 litres of water

  • 75 kw of power

  • 4kg of waste

  • 120kg of CO²

    Every Day…

The Hidden Cost of tourism to South Africa in 2005/6

R1,82 billion


Emissions

Emissions

  • High Altitude Emissions

    • Less than 30% of arrivals are by air.

    • Internal air travel – 47%

  • Vehicle and Fossil Fuel Impacts

    • Energy-related impacts per person of 75kg CO²

    • Travel-related impacts of 120kg o CO² per day

  • Other Impacts

    • Coal fires; braais; heating; food preparation; etc


Resources

Resources

  • Water

    • Increased consumption from visitors to areas

    • Increased use for aesthetic purposes

    • Higher wastage through operational activities

  • Land

    • Land-use changes affecting agricultural performance

    • Restriction on movement

    • Alienation

  • Solid Waste

    • Higher waste levels from operational activities

    • Unrestricted and mismanaged dumping

    • Groundwater contamination

  • Sewage


Physical impacts

Physical Impacts

  • Construction and Infrastructure Development

  • Deforestation and Unsustainable Use

  • Marina and Jetty Development

  • Other:

    • Trampling

    • Anchoring and marine activities

    • Ecosystem change


South africa 2010

South Africa & 2010

  • An estimated 400 000 fans

  • Direct Impacts:

    • 2.5 billion litres of water

    • 420 000 megawatts of power

    • 23 000 tons of waste

    • 180 000 tons of CO² through travel

  • National & Long-term Impacts

    • Winter period of high domestic demand

    • Long-term ecological and environmental impacts

    • Community and heritage impacts?


The future

The Future?

  • More responsible tourism practice

  • Greater consumer awareness

  • National waste management initiative

  • International awareness

  • Long-term vision


Questions comments

Questions & Comments


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