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NCI Workshop on Advanced Technologies in Radiation Oncology: Cervix. December 1, 2006 David Gaffney MDPhD Huntsman Cancer Hospital University of Utah. Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm . Cure very large tumors with RT alone Local control correlates with survival

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Nci workshop on advanced technologies in radiation oncology cervix

NCI Workshop on Advanced Technologies in Radiation Oncology: Cervix

December 1, 2006

David Gaffney MDPhD

Huntsman Cancer Hospital

University of Utah


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm Cervix

  • Cure very large tumors with RT alone

    • Local control correlates with survival

  • Brachytherapy permits very high dose to tumor

    • Requisite component of successful treatment

  • Morbidity is high (dose to bladder and rectum)

  • Concurrent Chemotherapy improves LC and DMFS

  • Modern Imaging (MRI and PET ) provides superior pre-Tx evaluation and treatment


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm1
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm Cervix

  • Cure very large tumors with RT alone

    • Eifel PJ, et al Time course and outcome of central recurrence after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2006;16:1106–1111.

5% of patients received chemotherapy


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm2
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm Cervix

  • Local control remains a clinical problem (ASTRO 2006)

    • RTOG 0128: 2 yr DFS is 69%

    • 2 yr Local Regional Failure is 26%

    • 55% of first sites of recurrence included a local-regional component


Pt A 85 Gy,

VSD 110 Gy,

Cervical os 150-200 Gy


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm3
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm complications

  • Dose Limiting toxicity

    • Small Bowel: < 45 Gy

    • Rectum: < 75 Gy

    • Bladder: < 75 Gy


Chemo
Chemo? complications

  • Chemotherapy improves DMFS and LC!

  • Neoadjuvant chemo has not worked in multiple randomised trials

  • NCI 1999: 5 randomised trials

    • All improved local control

    • 2 improved DMFS

  • Other chemo showed same benefit as CDDP (IPD Meta-analysis Tierney IGCS 2006)

  • Extended adjuvant chemo may have benefit (IPD Meta-analysis Tierney IGCS 2006)


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm4
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm complications

  • Imaging is better now: PET

    Grigsby et al IJROBP 59(3):706, 2004

Pelvic Nodes

Para-aortic nodes


Imaging is better now pet
Imaging is better now: PET complications

5/132 with PET + Pelvic LN’s failed. 1/33 with PET + PA LN’s failed.

“Lymph node recurrence as the only site of failure occurred in <2% of our patients…To resect or not to resect enlarged lymph nodes or to increase the irradiation dose to toxic levels in all patients is not the clinically relevant issue.“


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm5
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm complications

  • Tumors regress rapidly: shrinking GTV, poorly defined CTV---effect of endometrial extension is not clear

Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy

treatment planning in carcinoma of the cervix

Lin et al IJROBP 63:1494, 2005

Rapid involution and mobility of carcinoma

of the cervix, Lee et al IJROBP 58(2):625, 2004

SUV t1/2 20 days or 25 Gy

t1/2 21 days or 31 Gy


Radiotherapy for cervix cancer an important paradigm6
Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: An Important Paradigm complications

  • FDG-PET imaging for the assessment of physiologic volume response during radiotherapy in cervix cancerLin et al IJROBP 65(1):177, 2006

RFS by PET


Cervix cancer
Cervix Cancer complications

  • Cervix/Vagina is mobile

  • Variable filling of bowel and bladder

  • ITV used in post hysterectomy setting in RTOG 0418

Lee et al IJROBP 2004


Cervix stereotactic rt

Cervix: complicationsStereotactic RT

No Randomized Trials!


Cervix: IMRT/IGRT complications No Randomized Trials!1.Promising Single Institutional Data -AJ Mundt MD U of Chicago/UCSD -bone marrow sparing -less GI and hemetologic toxicity2. Prospective RTOG phase II trial: 0418


Cervix image guided brachytherapy rx to hr ctv by mr not point a no randomized trials
Cervix: Image Guided Brachytherapy complicationsRX to HR-CTV by MR, not point ANo Randomized Trials!

  • Single Institution Experience: Univ of Vienna

  • RTOG 0417 -secondary endpoint: develop dose volume library to correlate with toxicity


Cervix protons no randomized trials
Cervix: Protons complicationsNo Randomized Trials!

  • High-energy proton beam radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies. Potential of proton beam as an alternative to brachytherapy. Arimoto et al Cancer 68:79-83, 1991.

  • N=15, 1983 to 1987

  • Particle Radiation Medical Science Center

  • Local Control 14/15.

  • Radiation-induced proctitis (n=2, neither of which required surgical treatment) were the only complications despite a dose > 80 Gy in most cases.

  • “The results suggest that sharply localized, high-dose proton beam RT can produce an antitumor effect equivalent to that of conventional brachytherapy.”


Cervix neutrons yes randomized trials
Cervix: Neutrons complicationsYes! Randomized Trials!

Neutron therapy in cervical cancer: results of a phase III RTOG Study. Maor MH et al IJROBP 14:885, 1988

-n=156 patients

-(50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus intracavitary applications or external-beam boost) or mixed-beam radiotherapy (2 fractions a week of neutrons, 3 fractions a week of photons to a total RBE-adjusted dose of 50 Gy plus intracavitary applications or external mixed-beam boost).

-The % of patients undergoing intracavitary applications was 50% on mixed beam and 75% on photons (p < 0.01).

-Tumor clearance was 52% and 72% for mixed beam and photons, respectively (p<0.03).

-Median survivals were 1.9 years on mixed beam and 2.3 years on photons.

-Severe complications occurred in 19% and 11% in mixed beam and photons respectively (p<0.13). The inferior outcome with neutron therapy in this study may have resulted from the use of horizontal neutron beams of varying energy and penetration.


Neutrons randomized brachy trial
Neutrons: complicationsRandomized Brachy Trial

  • 252Cf vs conventional gamma radiation in the brachytherapy of advanced cervical carcinoma long-term treatment results of a randomized study.Tacev et al Strahlenther Onkol 179:377, 2003

    • N=227, 40 Gy-eq via brachy in first week, 16 Gy photon brachy week 5, ext beam 40 Gy/20 fractions, pt A 85 Gy

    • 19% increase in OS and LC for 252Cf, p<0.003

Promising phase II experience at Univ of Kentucky by

Maruyama et al.

Sources now at Tufts.




Hyperthermia two ongoing randomized trials
Hyperthermia: Two Ongoing Randomized Trials complications

  • Dutch Trial

    • RT and hyperthermia +/- chemo

  • Ellen Jones MDPhD Duke PI

    • ChemoRT +/- hyperthermia (q week)


Promising technologies in cervix cancer
Promising Technologies in Cervix Cancer complications

  • Image Guided Brachy: MR-Based (RTOG 0417)

    • Point A was not designed for dose prescription

Dimoupoulos et al IJROBP

66(1):83, 2006


Promising technologies in cervix cancer1
Promising Technologies in Cervix Cancer complications

  • Improved imaging (ACRIN/GOG study: Correlate surgical findings with MR and PET)

  • Improved imaging (ACRIN/RTOG proposed study: MR and PET; Correlate imaging with response, pre, during and post Tx, identify poor responders)

  • GOG/RTOG have performed trials previously in Cervix and Endometrium successfully +/- RT: GOG 92 and 99 (Reminiscent of success of RTOG 0413/NSABP B39)

  • IMRT (RTOG 0418) Stratification factor in GOG trials

  • Image Guided Brachytherapy (MRI)


Promising technologies in cervix cancer2
Promising Technologies in complicationsCervix Cancer

  • Better Radiosensitizers: In Meta-analysis: other chemo had same survival benefit as CDDP (Tierney et al IGCS 2006)

  • Extended Adjuvant chemo in LN + patients

  • Personalized Tx eg microarray gene expression analysis (permit dose escalation, choice of chemo?)


Promising technologies in cervix cancer3
Promising Technologies in Cervix Cancer complications

  • Hyperthermia (mult adv may make this more attractive)

  • High LET Brachytherapy program

    • Positive trial with Cf252

    • Limited institution

  • Proton beam

    • For Intact Cervix: Adaptive RT and IGRT required

    • Lymph node boosts

    • Recurrent disease

    • Poorly responding advanced stage disease


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