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DNA Identification. Where does DNA come from? 1/2 from mom 1/2 from dad What is it? “Blue print” of life How is DNA different among us? Common vs Different What does “DNA” mean? Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Cell. Where can DNA be found?. Cell Types. Blood. Hair Roots. Saliva. SAME.

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Dna identification
DNA Identification

  • Where does DNA come from?

    • 1/2 from mom

    • 1/2 from dad

  • What is it?

    • “Blue print” of life

  • How is DNA different among us?

    • Common vs Different

  • What does “DNA” mean?

    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid


Cell

Where can DNA be found?

Cell Types

Blood

Hair Roots

Saliva

SAME

Sweat

Semen

Various Tissue


Types of objects where DNA may be found

  • Blood Stains

  • Semen Stains

  • Chewing Gum

  • Stamps & Envelopes

  • Penile Swabs

  • Sweaty Clothing

  • Bone

  • Hair

  • Fingernail Scrapings

  • Saliva


Nucleus

Where is DNA in the body?

Cell


Where types of DNA are found in a cell?

Cell

Mitochondrial DNA

Nuclear DNA


Nucleus

Paternal

Chromosome

Maternal

Chromosome

Where is DNA in the body?


Chromosome

DNA

Where is DNA in the body?


Double Helix

A

T

C

G

DNA- What it looks like

Units

A =Adenine

T =Thymine

G =Guanine

C =Cytosine


4

5

TCTA

AGAT

TCTA

AGAT

TCTA

TCTA

AGAT

TCTA

AGAT

7

6

AGAT

TCTA

AGAT

TCTA

AGAT

TCTA

TCTA

AGAT

TCTA

TCTA

AGAT

STR

Short Tandem Repeat

AGAT

DNA Profile =4,6

TCTA

DNA Profile =5,7


Isolation of DNA

Chemical

DNA

Blood

Hair Roots

Saliva

Sweat

Tissue


Epithelial DNA

Semen stain

Different Chemical

Sperm DNA

Chemical

Differential Isolation of DNA

Semen stain

Remove

Epithelial

DNA

Sperm

DNA


DNA

Amplification

(making copies)

Solution


DENATURE

A

A

T

T

G

C

G

C

A

A

T

T

T

A

T

A

A

T

A

T

G

G

C

C

Heat

Step one of a single cycle


ANNEAL

A

A

G

T

G

A

T

T

C

A

C

A

A

T

T

T

T

T

C

Step two of a single cycle


T

G

G

A

C

A

T

T

G

A

G

T

A

A

G

T

G

A

A

T

G

A

T

A

T

A

T

T

C

T

A

T

C

C

T

EXTEND

Step three of a single cycle


Amplification

28 Cycles

1 Cycle

2 Cycles

DNA

3 Cycles

4 Cycles

5 Cycles

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)


Amplified

DNA

Analysis of amplified DNA

DNA

Profile


Area 5

Area 4

Area 3

Area 2

Evidence

AREAS OF DNA

Area 1

Sex

Area 6

Ref.Std.2

Ref.Std.1

SAMPLE

14,15

14,15

17,18

17,18

23,24

23,24

X,X

X,X

13,13

13,13

30,30

30,30

15,19

15,19

15,16

16,17

20,23

X,Y

12,14

30,30

13.2,15

15,16

16,17

20,23

X,Y

12,14

30,30

13.2,15


Str results
STR results

The DNA from the evidence stain and the reference sample from the suspect match.

The frequency of this matching pattern is approximately 1 in 520,000,000,000 in the Caucasian population, 1 in 618,500,000,000 in the African American population and 1 in 532,000,000,000 in the Hispanic population.

Based on these results the suspect is the source of the evidence stain to a reasonable degree of scientific certainty.


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