ARTICLES

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Ako su imenice brojive, znaci da imaju i jedninu i mno?inu:A dogdogsA childsome childrenAn umbrellatwo umbrellasBrojive imenice se u jednini uvek koriste sa odredenim ili neodredenim clanom. Ne mogu biti bez clana:She never wears a hat. *She never wears hat.Be careful of the dog. *Be careful of dog..

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ARTICLES

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1. ARTICLES ODREĐENI I NEODREĐENI CLAN

2. Ako su imenice brojive, znaci da imaju i jedninu i množinu: A dog dogs A child some children An umbrella two umbrellas Brojive imenice se u jednini uvek koriste sa odredenim ili neodredenim clanom. Ne mogu biti bez clana: She never wears a hat. *She never wears hat. Be careful of the dog. *Be careful of dog. Brojive imenice sa a/an i some

3. Neodredeni clan koristimo da bismo iskazali osobine neke osobe ili predmeta: What a lovely dress! Jill is really a nice person. Jack has got a long nose. Uz necije zanimanje: Sandra is a nurse. Tim’s father is a dentist. Are you a good teacher? Upotreba a/an

4. Some se koristi sa brojivim imenicama u množini i može imati dva znacenja: 1. “nekoliko, izvestan broj”: I’ve seen some good films recently. Some friends of mine are coming to stay at the weekend. 2. “neki ali ne svi”: Some children learn very quickly .(Neka deca, ne sva) Tomorrow there will be rain in some places, but most of the country will be dry. Upotreba some

5. I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn’t very good, but the apple was nice. Opšte pravilo: neodredeni clan se koristi kada nešto pominjemo po prvi put. Odredeni clan se koristi kada oba sagovornika znaju o kojim stvarima ili osobama se govori. A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American and the woman was Spanish. A/an i the (Neodredeni i odredeni clan)

6. Odredeni clan the koristimo 1. kad govorimo o jednoj odredenoj stvari: Tim sat down on a chair. (any chair) Tim sat down on the chair nearest the door. Paula is looking for a job. (not a specific job) Did Paula get the job she applied for? Have you got a car? (not a specific car) I cleaned the car yesterday. (my car) The 1

7. 2. kada je iz konteksta jasno na šta mislimo: Npr. ako smo u sobi, kažemo the floor, the ceiling, the carpet. Can you turn off the light, please? I took a taxi to the station. 3. the bank, the post office I have to go to the bank and then I’m going to the post office. (odredena banka i pošta, u tom gradu) 4. the doctor, the dentist I don’t like going to the dentist.

8. 5. Ali once a week, three times a day, twice a month How often do you go to the cinema? –About once a month. 6. kada postoji samo jedno: What is the longest river in the world? The earth goes round the sun. 7. the sky, the sea, the ground, the environment ali space (bez clana) The stars are in the sky. There are millions of stars in space.

9. 8.The cinema, the theatre, the radio ali television (bez clana). I heard the news on the radio. They heard the news on television. Ali Can you turn off the television, please? (=televizor) 9. Breakfast, lunch, dinner – nazivi obroka obicno idu bez clana: What did you have for breakfast? We had lunch in a very nice restaurant. Osim kada ispred ide pridev: We had a very nice lunch.

10. U kombinaciji imenica + broj ne koristimo the: Have you got these shoes in size 38? She is in Room 126. Our train leaves from Platform 5. Please turn to page 29. I didn’t know the answer to question 3.

11. The 2 (school/the school) Alice is 10 years old. Every day she goes to school. School begins at 9 and finishes at 3. Go to school bez clana znaci da se radi o uceniku. Škola kao opšti pojam, ne neka odredena škola Today Alice’s mother wants to speak to her daughter’s teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. Pošto njena majka nije ucenik, ne može se reci go to school Misli se na odredenu školu, onu koju pohada Alice.

12. Na isti nacin upotrebljavaju se imenice prison, hospital, church, university, college A.Ken’s brother is in prison for robbery. B.Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. A.Joe is still in hospital. B.Jane has gone to the hospital to visit him. A.My grandma goes to church every Sunday. B.Some workmen went to the church to repair the roof.

13. 2. Bed / work / home – ove imenice se obicno koriste bez clana: It’s time to go to bed now. (=go to sleep) Ali I sat down on the bed. (=a piece of furniture) Go to work/be at work/ start work/finish work Go home/come home/arrive home/be at home

14. Opšte pravilo: imenice sa the znace nešto odredeno, a bez the opšti pojam: A.I’m afraid of dogs. B.The dogs his brother keeps are fierce. A.Children learn from playing. B.We took the children to the zoo. A.I couldn’t live without music. B.The film wasn’t very good, but I liked the music. The 3

15. Osim gore navedenog, the se koristi i uz: 1. pridev (bez imenice) da bi oznacili odredenu grupu ljudi: The young = the young people The old The rich The poor The homeless The unemployed The dead The 4

16. 2. prideve koji oznacavaju nacionalnost: The French The English The Spanish The Chinese The Japanese The Swiss Ako želimo da kažemo “jedan Englez / Francuz” ne možemo reci *a French, vec a Frenchman

17. Pridevi na –ese imaju istu jedninu i množinu A Japanese (Japanac) – the Japanese (Japanci) Pridevi za druge nacionalnosti imaju množinu sa –s: An Italian – Italians A Mexican – Mexicans A Turk - Turks

18. Ima mnogo pravila i izuzetaka u upotrebi the sa imenima i nazivima: 1. The se ne upotrebljava: Sa licnim imenima: Helen / Helen Taylor Sa geografskim pojmovima: Kontinenti – Africa, Europe, South America Države – France, Japan, Texas Ostrva – Sicily, Crete, Hawaii Gradovi – New York, Barcelona, Venice Planine – Everest, Etna, Kilimanjaro Nazivi sa i bez the 1

19. Izuzetak: Kada se u imenima država pojavljuje Republic, Kingdom, States The United Kingdom The United States of America The Czech Republic

20. Sa titulama uz ime: Mr/Mrs/Captain/Doctor/President + name Mr Johnson / President Johnson/Princess Maria/ Saint Catherine/ Doctor Angela Taylor We called Doctor Taylor immediately. Sa imenima planina i jezera: Mount Everest / Mount Etna / Lake Superior / Lake Windermere He bought a house near Lake Windermere.

21. 2. The se upotrebljava: Sa nazivima reka, kanala, mora i okeana: The Atlantic (Ocean) / The Mediterranean (Sea) / the Red Sea / The English Channel / The Amazon / the Nile / the River Tnames Sa nazivima pustinja: The Sahara (Desert) / the Gobi Desert Sa imenima ljudi i mesta ukoliko su u množini: Ljudi – the Taylors (=the Taylor family)

22. Država – the Netherlands, the Phillipines Grupa ostrva – the Bahamas Planinskih lanaca – the Alps, the Rocky Mountains Sa stranama sveta: the north/the south/ the south-east / the Middle East / the Far East Ali bez the: northern Europe / southern Serbia / North America (ime kontinenta)

23. 3. The se ne upotrebljava: Sa nazivima ulica / trgova/ parkova: Wall Street / Times Square / Hyde Park Sa nazivima javnih zgrada i institucija: Manchester Airport / Victora Station / Harvard University / Buckingham Palace Sa nazivima restorana, hotela, prodavnica, banaka jer one u nazivu cesto sadrže licno ime osnivaca: Lloyds Bank/Brown’s Restaurant/Macy’s (robna kuca) Sa imenima crkava: St John’s Church / St Patrick’s Cathedral Nazivi sa i bez the 2

24. 4. The se upotrebljava sa nazivima: Hotela/restorana – the Sheraton Hotel/the Bombay Restaurant Pozorišta/bioskopa – the Odeon (Cinema)/the Royal Theatre Muzeja/galerija – the Louvre/the British Museum/the Tate Gallery Drugih važnih gradevina – the Eiffel Tower / the White House / the Empire State Building/the Acropolis/the Kremlin/the Pentagon

25. Organizacija – the European Union/the BBC/the Red Cross/the FBI Novinskih kuca – the Times/the Washington Post/the Daily Mail Ali nazivi preduzeca ili firmi nemaju the: Fiat Kodak Sony IBM British Airways

26. 1. LICNE ZAMENICE (Personal Pronouns) Imaju funkciju subjekta u recenici. 1.I – ja 2. you – ti 3. he/she/it – on/ona/ono Množina: 1. we – mi 2. you – vi 3. they – oni Engleski jezik ima prirodni rod, tj. svi predmeti i pojmovi oznacavaju se sa it, bica muškog pola sa he, a ženskog sa she. VRSTE ZAMENICA (PRONOUNS)

27. 2. PRISVOJNE ZAMENICE (Possesive Pronouns) Oznacavaju pripadanje i zamenjuju imenicu. I have a book. The book is mine. 1. I – mine (ja – moje) 1. we - ours 2. you – yours 2. you - yours 3. he – his 3. they - theirs she – hers it - its

28. Prisvojne zamenice treba razlikovati od PRISVOJNIH PRIDEVA, koji takode oznacavaju pripadnost, ali idu uz imenicu, tj. ne mogu da stoje sami. I have a book. This is my book. 1. I – my book 1. we – our book 2. you – your book 2. you – your book 3. he – his book 3. they – their book she – her book it – its book

29. 3. POVRATNE ZAMENICE (Reflexive Pronouns) Upotrebljavaju se kada je subjekat recenice isti kao objekat. I don’t want you to pay for me. I will pay for myself. He is really odd. He always talks to himself 1.myself 1. ourselves 2. yourself 2. yourselves 3.himself/herself/itself 3.themselves

30. 4. POKAZNE ZAMENICE (Demonstrative Pronouns) Za pokazivanje: this book, those cars Jednina Množina This book (ova knjiga) These books (ove knjige) That chair (ona stolica) Those chairs (one stolice) Do you see that car over there? I can’t bring all these books with me.

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