Article of psychology. Methods. Psychology of sensation and perception. Olena Smashna. Psychology - one of sciences about a person, his life and activity. The article of it is psychical activity of person, its psychical processes, states and properties.
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Article of psychology. Methods. Psychology of sensation and perception.Olena Smashna
Psychology - one of sciences about a person, his life and activity. The article of it is psychical activity of person, its psychical processes, states and properties.
General psychology is science, which studies essence and general conformities to the law of origin, functioning and development of psyche.
*Structuralism- early school of psychology that emphasizedstudying the most basic components,or structures, of consciousexperiences.
Medical psychology is divided into general and special.
11) Comparative psychology is research of filogenic form of psychical life, comparison of psyche of animals and man;animal psychology.
12). Social psychology: mutual relations of people from the different organized and unorganized groups of communities:
In psychology distinguish:
Advantages - conducted in a natural ordinary situation
does not change behavior of persons;
2). Experiment: laboratory and natural.
Advantages: - it is possible specially to cause a certain psychical process
it is possible to trace dependence of the psychical phenomenon on changeble external conditions.
3). Methods of questioning:
Method of conversation: use on the different stages of research both for a primary orientation and for clarification of conclusions, got with the help of other methods (supervision).
4). Method of interview. Questionnaire. Difference: The method of interview foresees greater freedom of polled in forming of answer.
5). Method of expert estimations: widely use personality psychology. As experts can come forward competent persons which know explored well: educators of preschool, schools-boarding-schools, leaders of classes, masters on a production, leaders of scientific collectives, sporting trainers and other
6). Method of introspection: widely used in empiric psychology of a 18-19 ages
7). Method of tests: tests, that the brief studies of properties of personality are more or less standardized
Are you able to own the emotions?
· Are you able to influence on other?
· Are you understood in Cosmetology?
· Are you able to get dressed? and etc
8). Concrete methods of psychological inspection: there are very much and depends on a purpose. For example, study of age-old changes of attention (to firmness), normal and morons children.
The experimental method is a research method used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effect that isproduced on another variable.
Conducting an experiment involves deliberatelyvarying one factor, which is called the independent variable. The researcherthen measures the changes, if any, that are produced in a second factor, called thedependent variable. The dependent variable is so named because changes in itdepend on variations in the independent variable.
To the greatest degree possible, all other conditions in the experiment areheld constant. Thus, when the data are analyzed, any changes that occur in thedependent variable can be attributed to the deliberate variations of the independentvariable. In this way, an experiment can demonstrate a cause-and-effectrelationship between the independent and dependent variables.
– the most elementary stage, which reflects separate quality of subject, which is acting in right moment to sensory organs.
According to modality:
Interoceptive – give signal about condition of our inner world: warm, cold, hunger, uncomfortability. These sensastions don’t have localisation, outside proection, closely connected with emotional processes.
Exteroceptive – 5 sensation organs: smell, taste, sight, hearing, tactile.
Proprioceptive – information about body position, movement in space, everything which makes body scheme.
1. Exteroreceptors (external).
3. Interoreceprors (visceroreceptors).
Receptors of the digestive system:
Receptors of the system of circulation of blood
Receptors of the respiratory system.
Receptors of the system of reproduction.
Receptors of pain of all internal organs.
Perception is a psychical process which consists in the integral reflection of objects and phenomena of outward things under direct influence of physical irritants on the receptors of sense-organs (auditory, visual etc).
Perceptions of colors and their influence are on the psyche of man
Perception depends on:
Violation of perception:
1.In asthenic patients the thresholds of feelings are reduced. That is why it is necessary to create all proper terms in relation to warning of action of superstrong for a sick man irritants (noise, vowel language, strong smells, protracted visits of visitors and others like that).
2. At the care of patients it is needed to take into account the processes of adaptation, habituation and sensibilisation. SO, the process of adaptation to the stationary terms lasts mainly three-four days. Habituation lasted more characteristic for patients from rural locality, and sensibilisation - for the habitants of city.
3. At the care of patients and socializing with them it is necessary to take into account the sensitiveness of analyzers: more loud to speak to the persons with the reduced ear, to heed after operating of hot-water bottle on areas bodies, staggered paralyses or paresises, to darken a chamber, where patients which pupils were medicinal extended and others like that are.
4. It is needed to take into account influence of colors on the state of psyche of patient: green and blue - calm patients, and the red and orange excite the nervous system.
5. Illness strengthens selectivity of perception.