Andr faaij copernicus institute utrecht university task leader iea bioenergy task 40
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Development of the energy potential of the forestry sector and wood energy in a sustainable way. UNECE/FAO Policy Forum: The Forest Sector in the Green Economy, Geneva – Switzerland, October 15 th , 2009. André Faaij Copernicus Institute - Utrecht University Task Leader IEA Bioenergy Task 40.

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André Faaij Copernicus Institute - Utrecht University Task Leader IEA Bioenergy Task 40

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Andr faaij copernicus institute utrecht university task leader iea bioenergy task 40

Development of the energy potential of the forestry sector and wood energy in a sustainable way.UNECE/FAO Policy Forum: The Forest Sector in the Green Economy, Geneva – Switzerland, October 15th, 2009.

André Faaij

Copernicus Institute - Utrecht University

Task Leader IEA Bioenergy Task 40


Developed perceptions

Developed perceptions…

  • GHG balances not OK

  • Endless subsidies needed.

  • Land and water constrain bioenergy to marginal levels.

  • Increases food prices and not good for farmers.

  • Other alternatives (solar, efficiency, hydrogen) are better and really sustainable.


After the burst of the bubble in 2008

After the burst of the bubble in 2008…

  • Strong policy action:

    • Push for sustainability frameworks

    • Push for 2nd generation biofuels and other advanced options

    • Targeting lignocellulosic resources (residues from agriculture, forestry, marginal/degraded lands)

    • Market players follow this development


Bioenergy today

Bioenergy today

  • 45 EJ + 10 EJ total use (global about 480 EJ)

  • 9 EJ + 6 EJ commercial; non-modern

  • ~ 8 EJ Modern; commercial:

    • < 1 EJ electricity

    • ~ 2.5 EJ heat

    • ~ 1.5 EJ biofuels (bulk = ethanol; half of that ethanol sugar cane based)

  • Main controversy on biofuels from annual crops and palm oil.

  • Currently some 25 Mha in use for biofuels worldwide (compared to 5,000 Mha for food)


Certification bioenergy ongoing initiatives

Certification bioenergy: ongoing initiatives

  • Governments: UK, NL, D, B, and more EU nations…; EC, US, DC’s…

  • NGO’s & International bodies.

  • Market initiatives/multistakeholder: roundtables on palm, soy, sugar and biofuels, utilities,…

IEA Task 40:Van Dam et al., 2008;

Biomass & Bioenergy.

www.bioenergytrade.org


Energy climate crisis can only be tackled by a portfolio of all options we have available

Energy & climate crisis can only be tackled by a portfolio of all options we have available.

[IIASA]

GHG mitigation

Potentials

[IPCC AR4, 2007]


Limitations in degraded land protected areas and water

Limitations in degraded land, protected areas and water


Overall picture

OverallPicture

Yes, biomass can play a significant role in future energy supply

Dornburg et al., 2008


Perennial crops vs annual crops

Perennial crops (vs. annual crops)

  • Lower costs (< 2 €/GJ)

  • Planted for 15-25 years

  • Low(er) intensity

    • Can restore soil carbon and structure

    • Suited for marginal/degraded lands

    • Requires less inputs (well below key threshold values)

  • Wide portfolio of species & production systems

    • Possibilities for enhancing (bio-) diversity

    • Adaptable to local circumstances (water, indigenous species)

  • Earlier development stage

    • Large scale and diverse experience needed

    • Learning curve to be exploited

    • Improvement potential

Miscanthus x giganteus


Yields perennials 3x annual

Yields: perennials ~3x annual


Experience curve for primary forest fuels in sweden and finland 1975 and 2003

Experience curve for primary forest fuels in Sweden and Finland (1975 and 2003).

Source: Junginger Faaij et al., 2005


Andr faaij copernicus institute utrecht university task leader iea bioenergy task 40

Experience curve for the average and marginal production cost of electricity from Swedish biofuelled CHP plants from 1990-2002

Source: Junginger, Faaij et al., 2005


Developing international bioenergy markets

Developing international bioenergy markets

Canada

E. Europe

& CIS

W. Europe

USA

Japan

Japan

South East

Asia

Ethanol

ethanol

Brazil

Pellets

pellets

palm

oil

&

Palm oil & agricultural residues

agricultural

residues

Wood Pellets

Ethanol

Palm Oil & Ag Residues

[IEA Task 40; www.bioenergytrade.org]


A future vision on global bioenergy 2040

A future vision on global bioenergy…(2040?)

250 Mha = 100 EJ

= 5% ag land + pasture

= 1/3 Brazilie

[GIRACT FFF Scenario project; Faaij, 2008]


Synthetic fuels from biomass biomass coal gasification to ft liquids with gas turbine

Pre-treatment:

- grinding

- drying

feedstock is poplar wood

Gasification:

- air or oxygen

- pressurised or

atmospheric

- direct/indirect

Gas cleaning:

- ‘wet’ cold or

‘dry’ hot

FT liquids

Offgas

Recycle loop

FT synthesis:

- slurry reactor

or fixed bed

Gas turbine

Gas processing:

- reforming

- shift

- CO2 removal

Power

Synthetic fuels from biomassBiomass & coal gasification to FT liquids - with gas turbine

Major investments in IG-FT capacity

ongoing in China right now:

- Reducing dependency on oil imports!

- Without capture strong increase in CO2 emissions…

About 50%

of carbon!


Economic performance 2 nd generation biofuels s t l t 3 euro gj feedstock

Economic performance 2nd generation biofuels s.t. & l.t.; 3 Euro/GJ feedstock

[Hamelinck & Faaij, 2006]


The iea on biofuels

The IEA on biofuels…

IEA-ETP, 2008


Final remarks

Final Remarks

  • We cannot miss out on the biobased economy for fundamental and interlinked reasons (energy, climate, soil & carbon management, rural development).

  • Lignocellulosic biomass (perennials, residues) offer the excellent perspectives.

  • Forest sector and (international) pellet markets offers an essential opportunity on shorter term + the market experience to build on for longer term.

  • Follow the learning curve, develop (sustainable) markets and stimulate investment.

  • Breakthrough of 2nd gen biofuels may take affect on the forestry sector sooner than we think and will not be driven by policy but by economics


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