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Development of the energy potential of the forestry sector and wood energy in a sustainable way. UNECE/FAO Policy Forum: The Forest Sector in the Green Economy, Geneva – Switzerland, October 15 th , 2009. André Faaij Copernicus Institute - Utrecht University Task Leader IEA Bioenergy Task 40.

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andr faaij copernicus institute utrecht university task leader iea bioenergy task 40

Development of the energy potential of the forestry sector and wood energy in a sustainable way.UNECE/FAO Policy Forum: The Forest Sector in the Green Economy, Geneva – Switzerland, October 15th, 2009.

André Faaij

Copernicus Institute - Utrecht University

Task Leader IEA Bioenergy Task 40

developed perceptions
Developed perceptions…
  • GHG balances not OK
  • Endless subsidies needed.
  • Land and water constrain bioenergy to marginal levels.
  • Increases food prices and not good for farmers.
  • Other alternatives (solar, efficiency, hydrogen) are better and really sustainable.
after the burst of the bubble in 2008
After the burst of the bubble in 2008…
  • Strong policy action:
    • Push for sustainability frameworks
    • Push for 2nd generation biofuels and other advanced options
    • Targeting lignocellulosic resources (residues from agriculture, forestry, marginal/degraded lands)
    • Market players follow this development
bioenergy today
Bioenergy today
  • 45 EJ + 10 EJ total use (global about 480 EJ)
  • 9 EJ + 6 EJ commercial; non-modern
  • ~ 8 EJ Modern; commercial:
    • < 1 EJ electricity
    • ~ 2.5 EJ heat
    • ~ 1.5 EJ biofuels (bulk = ethanol; half of that ethanol sugar cane based)
  • Main controversy on biofuels from annual crops and palm oil.
  • Currently some 25 Mha in use for biofuels worldwide (compared to 5,000 Mha for food)
certification bioenergy ongoing initiatives
Certification bioenergy: ongoing initiatives
  • Governments: UK, NL, D, B, and more EU nations…; EC, US, DC’s…
  • NGO’s & International bodies.
  • Market initiatives/multistakeholder: roundtables on palm, soy, sugar and biofuels, utilities,…

IEA Task 40:Van Dam et al., 2008;

Biomass & Bioenergy.

www.bioenergytrade.org

energy climate crisis can only be tackled by a portfolio of all options we have available
Energy & climate crisis can only be tackled by a portfolio of all options we have available.

[IIASA]

GHG mitigation

Potentials

[IPCC AR4, 2007]

overall picture
OverallPicture

Yes, biomass can play a significant role in future energy supply

Dornburg et al., 2008

perennial crops vs annual crops
Perennial crops (vs. annual crops)
  • Lower costs (< 2 €/GJ)
  • Planted for 15-25 years
  • Low(er) intensity
    • Can restore soil carbon and structure
    • Suited for marginal/degraded lands
    • Requires less inputs (well below key threshold values)
  • Wide portfolio of species & production systems
    • Possibilities for enhancing (bio-) diversity
    • Adaptable to local circumstances (water, indigenous species)
  • Earlier development stage
    • Large scale and diverse experience needed
    • Learning curve to be exploited
    • Improvement potential

Miscanthus x giganteus

experience curve for primary forest fuels in sweden and finland 1975 and 2003
Experience curve for primary forest fuels in Sweden and Finland (1975 and 2003).

Source: Junginger Faaij et al., 2005

slide12
Experience curve for the average and marginal production cost of electricity from Swedish biofuelled CHP plants from 1990-2002

Source: Junginger, Faaij et al., 2005

developing international bioenergy markets
Developing international bioenergy markets

Canada

E. Europe

& CIS

W. Europe

USA

Japan

Japan

South East

Asia

Ethanol

ethanol

Brazil

Pellets

pellets

palm

oil

&

Palm oil & agricultural residues

agricultural

residues

Wood Pellets

Ethanol

Palm Oil & Ag Residues

[IEA Task 40; www.bioenergytrade.org]

a future vision on global bioenergy 2040
A future vision on global bioenergy…(2040?)

250 Mha = 100 EJ

= 5% ag land + pasture

= 1/3 Brazilie

[GIRACT FFF Scenario project; Faaij, 2008]

synthetic fuels from biomass biomass coal gasification to ft liquids with gas turbine

Pre-treatment:

- grinding

- drying

feedstock is poplar wood

Gasification:

- air or oxygen

- pressurised or

atmospheric

- direct/indirect

Gas cleaning:

- ‘wet’ cold or

‘dry’ hot

FT liquids

Offgas

Recycle loop

FT synthesis:

- slurry reactor

or fixed bed

Gas turbine

Gas processing:

- reforming

- shift

- CO2 removal

Power

Synthetic fuels from biomassBiomass & coal gasification to FT liquids - with gas turbine

Major investments in IG-FT capacity

ongoing in China right now:

- Reducing dependency on oil imports!

- Without capture strong increase in CO2 emissions…

About 50%

of carbon!

economic performance 2 nd generation biofuels s t l t 3 euro gj feedstock
Economic performance 2nd generation biofuels s.t. & l.t.; 3 Euro/GJ feedstock

[Hamelinck & Faaij, 2006]

final remarks
Final Remarks
  • We cannot miss out on the biobased economy for fundamental and interlinked reasons (energy, climate, soil & carbon management, rural development).
  • Lignocellulosic biomass (perennials, residues) offer the excellent perspectives.
  • Forest sector and (international) pellet markets offers an essential opportunity on shorter term + the market experience to build on for longer term.
  • Follow the learning curve, develop (sustainable) markets and stimulate investment.
  • Breakthrough of 2nd gen biofuels may take affect on the forestry sector sooner than we think and will not be driven by policy but by economics
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