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Concept Design Review (CoDR). Shore Station DC Breaker Cable model Transient Analysis Components. NEPTUNE. Shore Station. Configuration of Shore Station. SHORE STATION… Power supply Selection. Off-the-shelf Buck regulator. General ratings: Output Voltage = 10 kV DC

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concept design review codr

Concept Design Review (CoDR)

Shore Station

DC Breaker

Cable model

Transient Analysis

Components

shore station power supply selection
SHORE STATION…Power supply Selection
  • Off-the-shelf Buck regulator.
  • General ratings:
    • Output Voltage = 10 kV DC
    • Output Range = 9 – 15 kV
    • Voltage tolerance within 2%.
    • Output Power = 200 kW
    • Current Limiting Capability = twice the rated current = 20 A.
    • Local and remote control functions
    • Self diagnostics capabilities
shore station power supply selection1
SHORE STATION…Power supply Selection

Potential vendor for shore stations

Manufacturer: Diversified Tech

Model: Custom made.

Specifications:

  • Input: 3 phase 13.8 kW service.
  • Output: 10kV / 200kW using the HV buck regulator technology.
  • Over current protection: Above 40A. Solid state system will act as current limiter.
  • Dimensions: 40” by 36” by 42” estimated.
shore station surge protection
SHORE STATION…Surge Protection
  • Spark gap arresters
  • Metal oxide varistor (MOV)
    • ceramic, polymer or silicon rubber insulator
  • Surge arresters are selected based on several ratings
    • Energy absorption capability (or energy withstand capability)
    • Maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV)
    • Temperature rise.
shore station vacuum switches breaker
SHORE STATION…Vacuum Switches (Breaker)
  • Types:
    • Air
    • Air-blast
    • Magnetic quencher
    • Oil
    • Sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6)
    • Vacuum
    • Solid-state
shore station vacuum switches
SHORE STATION…Vacuum Switches
  • Vacuum breaker is used for systems under 36 kV.
    • Pollution-free
    • Fast
    • Reliable
    • Compact
    • Light weight
    • Requires small energy to operate.
shore station vacuum switches1
SHORE STATION…Vacuum Switches

Potential manufacturer: Kilovac or Jennings

Specifications:

  • Contact Arrangement: Normally Open.
  • Rated Operating Voltage:28kV
  • Max. Current: 40A.
  • Max. Contact Resistance: 0.02 ohm.
  • Release time < 20 ms
  • mechanical lifetime > 2 million cycles.
slide13

S1

S4

R1

R2

DC CIRCUIT BREAKER…Stage 1- Normal closure

S2

S3

C

slide14

S4

R1

R2

S1

C

DC CIRCUIT BREAKER…Stage 2 - Interruption

S3

S2

Current is routed through C

Size of C is selected to prevent restrikes

slide15

S2

S3

S4

R1

R2

S1

C

DC CIRCUIT BREAKER…Stage 3 – Discharging of Capacitor

Cap is discharged through R2

to set the circuit for next switching

slide16

S2

S3

S4

R1

R2

S1

C

DC CIRCUIT BREAKER…Stage 4 – Soft Starting

Soft starting resistance R1 reduces

the inrush current during energization

slide17

S1

S4

R1

R2

DC CIRCUIT BREAKER…Stage 5 – Normal closure

S2

S3

C

components selection vacuum switches
Components Selection Vacuum Switches
  • Voltage Rating
    • Withstanding Voltage > 25kV
  • Continuous Current Rating
    • 20A or higher
  • Release time
    • Faster release time means smaller capacitor is required. Release time < 20 ms
  • Lifespan, measured in cycles of operation
    • Millions of operations
components selection capacitor
Components Selection Capacitor
  • Voltage Rating
    • 15-20kV rating
  • Capacitance
    • 1-10μF, depending on node location
  • Size
    • up to 600 cubic inches
  • Lifespan
    • Measured in hours of operation
components selection resistors
Components Selection Resistors
  • 2 Resistors: soft close and capacitor discharge
  • Resistance value: Both are currently specified at 1kΩ
  • Peak Voltage Rating: 10-20kV
  • Peak Energy Rating
    • Power dissipation more important in this application than average power, as resistors will be used for brief (less than one second) intervals
components selection diodes1
Components Selection Diodes
  • VRRM (maximum repeat reverse voltage): 20-25kV
  • Continuous forward current
    • Based on normal operation > 50 A
    • Maximum Transient Current > 300A
    • di/dt ratings > 100A/s
  • Reverse leakage current ~ A
  • Type: Stacked Hockey Puck
cable model inductance1
Cable Model…inductance
  • flux linkages theory

a) the core

b) the sheath.

c) the insulation.

cable model inductance2
Cable Model…inductance
  • Cable Inductance

Where:

= Total flux associated with the cable.

= Total cable current.

cable model resistance
Cable Model…Resistance
  • The resistance per unit length of a tubular conductor is given by:

The total cable resistance is thus given by:

cable model capacitance
Cable Model…Capacitance
  • The cable capacitance per unit length can be calculated by the formula:

Where,

 is the permittivity of the insulator.

d is the outer radius of insulator

c is the inner radius of insulator.

cable model seawater
Cable Model…Seawater
  • The current return is through the seawater.
  • In near DC conditions the sea-water resistance and inductance are calculated as:

R = 0.098 m/km.

L = 2.221 mH/km.

  • These values are frequency dependent.
cable model composite model
Cable Model…Composite model
  • For transient simulation, the steel core and copper sheath can be modeled as a composite conductor

comp = 5.1753*10-8 m.

comp = 9.0788

transient simulation

Transient Simulation

Normal Switching

Fault

transient analysis what is atp
TRANSIENT ANALYSIS…What isATP?
  • ATP is a universal program system for digital simulation of transient analysis of transmission systems.
  • ATP has extensive modeling capabilities including power electronics, control, protection, etc.
simulation circuit switching timing

N1

N2

N3

N4

Simulation Circuit… Switching Timing

0.1

0.4

0.7

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.8

2.1

simulation circuit restrike1

t = topen

t = (topen-t)

t =( topen +t)

Switch closed

Switch open: initial arcing

Capacitor charging

Simulation Circuit… Restrike
simulation of restrikes

Voltage

Vmax

RESTRIKE

topen

Time

Initial Arcing

Simulation of Restrikes
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