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Americans on the European Front Notes. Angela Brown Chapter 10 Section 3. Learning Targets:. Describe how the United States prepared to take part in World War 1. Explain how American troops helped turn the tide of the war. Describe German submarine tactics during World War 1.

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Americans on the European Front Notes

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Americans on the european front notes

Americans on the European Front Notes

Angela Brown

Chapter 10 Section 3


Learning targets

Learning Targets:

  • Describe how the United States prepared to take part in World War 1.

  • Explain how American troops helped turn the tide of the war.

  • Describe German submarine tactics during World War 1.

  • Describe the war’s end and its costs.


Americans on the european front notes

http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/great%20war/great%

20war%20%20pages/great%20war%20map%2001.htm


Americans on the european front notes

http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/great%20war/great

%20war%20%20pages/great%20war%20map%2002.htm


Preparing for action

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/pershing-port.jpg

Preparing for Action

  • Despite preparedness U.S. not ready to send troops to European front in April 1917.

  • Sent naval support, supplies, arms, $3 billion in loans, and a token force of 14,500 men led by General Pershing to boost allied morale.

  • Pershing recommended army should number 1 million by 1918 and 3 million by 1919.


Draftees and volunteers

Draftees and Volunteers

  • 1917 – U.S. 120,000 enlisted men and 80,000 national guardsmen

  • May 1917 Congress passed a Selective Service Act authorizing a draft of young men for military services

  • “War to end all Wars” resulted in wide acceptance of program


Americans on the european front notes

  • Nov 1918 – 24 million men registered for draft.

  • A lottery picked 3 million draftees

  • Draftees, volunteers, National Guardsmen made up American Expeditionary Force (AEF).


Americans on the european front notes

http://archives.queensu.ca/wwi/images/XMASHospital2.jpg

  • 11,000 women volunteered in uniform as nurses, drivers, and clerks

  • Another 14,000 women served abroad as civilians working for the government or for private agencies.


Americans on the european front notes

http://www.met.police.uk/history/images/030822.jpg

http://www.mtsu.edu/~kmiddlet/history/women/gif/wwi-seeds2.gif

http://www.goingpostal.cc/PropagandaT-shirts/Big/LandArmy2.jpg


The convoy system

The Convoy System

  • U.S. troops were kept separate from allied troops and the more than 300,000 African American Soldiers

  • (4,000 African American troops killed/wounded most never saw combat)

  • Marines refused African Americans completely/navy minor tasks/ Army manual labor – frustrated African Americans


Americans on the european front notes

  • 369th infantry – Harlem Hell Fighters – officers agreed to loan to French Army who integrated regiment

  • Received highest combat medal –French Croix de Guerre

http://www.redstone.army.mil/history/integrate/harlem.jpg


Turning the tide of war

http://cla.calpoly.edu/~lcall/lenin.gif

Turning The Tide of War

  • Nov 1917, Bolsheviks, followers of Vladimir Lenin, violently overthrew Russia’s government.

  • Lenin promised peace with Germany if in control.

  • Germany aided his return from Switzerland


Americans on the european front notes

  • March 3, 1918 – Lenin made peace with Germany.

  • Freed Germany from two- front war

  • turned all energy toward French

  • British lines (broke through – 50 miles from Paris by June 3)


Americans save paris

Americans Save Paris

  • Brigadier General, James G. Harbord, stated “We dig no trenches to fall back on. The marines will hold where they stand.”

  • Blunted edge of German advance, began to turn the tide of war – lost ½ of troops


Allied counterattack

Allied Counterattack

  • Used new weapon… the tank

  • Aug. 8, Battle of Amiens, Allies stopped German advance once and for all.

  • Allies insisted on total surrender.

  • Allies used airplanes to drop bombs, aerial dogfights, “Aces”.

  • Bombing raids would become a devastating weapon in the future.

http://www.fiddlersgreen.net/AC/aircraft/MoraneSaulnier

-Bullet/bullet_info/pegoud_morane.jpg


The red baron

The Red Baron

  • Rittmeister Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen

  • In a time of wooden and fabric aircraft, when twenty air victories insured a pilot legendary status and the coveted Pour Le Mérite (the famous "Blue Max") , Richthofen had eighty victories, and is regarded to this day as the ace of aces.


Americans on the european front notes

http://worldroots.com/brigitte/gifs3/redbaron.jpg

http://files.blog-city.com/files/aa/47577/p/f/lg1046curse_you_red_baron.jpg

http://majpalmer.com/horst/baron%202004-01-19%2009-11-07-31_small.jpg

http://www.fokkerdr1.com/Arrtwork/Red%20Baron%20Morn_Art.jpg


Americans on the european front notes

http://storeforknowledge.com/images/ACF1AE7.jpeg


Americans on the european front notes

http://www.ultralightflyer.com/images/nieuport12.jpg

http://www.windsockdatafilespecials.com/zepcovbig.jpg


Corporal alvin york

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:York.jpg

Corporal Alvin York

  • York, TN mountains, turkey hunter

  • Applied to be classified conscientious objector.

  • Someone who refuses to serve in the military because of religious beliefs, denied, drafted.

  • Took part in Meuse-Argonne offensive (final allied assault – 1 million AEF)


Americans on the european front notes

  • Patrol tried to destroy German machine gun nest.

  • lost ½ troops the remainder took cover

  • York continued on his own.

  • killed 25 and captured 132 German soldiers

  • (Congressional Medal of Honor – French Croix de Guerre)


Ending the war

http://www.memoriallibrary.com/MI/Livingston/WWI/Red/redcross.jpg

Ending the War

  • Armistice, or ceasefire – Kaiser fled to Holland

  • Nov 11, 1918 guns fell silent

  • 500,000 Americans died in Battle

  • Many more of disease…Influenza

  • (Red Cross – nurses reduced # a great deal)


Americans on the european front notes

http://www.bpib.com/illustra2/christy7.jpg

http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3g00000/3g09000/3g09800/3g09863v.jpg

http://images.acclaimimages.com/_gallery/_SM/0027-0605-2411-0925_SM.jpg


Americans on the european front notes

  • Total death toll – 8 million soldiers/sailors – averages 5,000 soldiers a day

  • Most of fighting took place in Europe – battles in Africa and the Middle East

  • Millions of civilians died – starvation, disease, or war-related injuries


Americans on the european front notes

  • Genocide – organized killing of an entire people

  • Ottoman forces deported and murdered Armenians (suspected of disloyalty to government) continued into early 20s.


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