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1. CONDITIONALS (TYPE 1, 2 AND 3)
2. Kondicionalne recenice Su složene recenice koje koristimo da bi govorili o situacijama koje su moguce u sadašnjosti ili buducnosti (Tip 1), o zamišljenim situacijama u sadašnjosti ili buducnosti (Tip2) ili o zamišljenim situacijama u prošlosti (Tip 3).
Sastoje se iz dve proste recenice od kojih jedna izražava uslov, a druga rezultat.
3. Conditional Type 1 If + present simple / will + inf.
Lisa has lost her watch. Sue tells her: “If I find it, I’ll let you know.”
If recenica uvek izražava uslov (“ako ga nadem”), a druga rezultat (“javicu ti”).
Tip 1 izražava situaciju koja je realna, moguca u sadašnjosti ili buducnosti.
Na srpski se prevodi kao:
Ako+ prezent / futur
Ako ga nadem, javicu ti.
4. Primeri If we invite Bill to the party, we ___________ (have to invite) his friends too.
If I catch the early bus, I ___________ (not be late) for the exam.
If I see Kate today, I _____________ (tell) her the good news.
5. Conditional Type 1 Ponekad se umesto Present Simple, u if recenici može upotrebiti Present Continuous ili Present Perfect:
If we're expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean.
If you've finished with the computer, I'll put it away.
6. U glavnoj recenici obicno je will. Ali mogu se koristiti i drugi modalni glagoli (e.g. can).
If you haven't got a television, you can't watch it, can you?
If Henry jogs regularly, he might lose weight.
If Matthew is going to a job interview, he should wear a tie.
If recenica je obicno prva, ali može da bude i posle glavne recenice.
If I hear any news, I'll phone you./I'll phone you if I hear any news.
7. Kondicional 1 koristi se za ponude i predloge:
If you need a ticket, I can get you one.
If you feel like seeing the sights, we can take a bus tour.
Kao i za upozorenja i pretnje:
If you go on like this, you'll make yourself ill.
If you don't apologize, I'll never speak to you again.
8. Zero Conditional If you heat water, it boils
Ponekad se Present S. koristi u obe recenice. Naziva se nulti kondicional:
If you heat water, it boils.
If Daniel has any money, he spends it.
If you press this switch, the computer comes on.
Znaci da jedna stvar automatski sledi iz druge (jedan uslov uvek dovodi do istog rezultata).
9. Conditional Type 2 If + past simple / would + inf.
If I found a wallet in the street, I would take it to the police station.
Tip 2 izražava situaciju koja nije realna: ovde se samo zamišlja uslov i rezultat, ne ocekuje se da se to i desi.
Iako koristimo prošlo vreme, ne govorimo o prošlosti, vec o zamišljenoj situaciji u sadašnjosti ili buducnosti.
Srpski: Kad bi / potencijal (bih, bi) ili Da + prezent / potencijal
Kad bih našao novcanik na ulici, odneo bih ga u policiju.
Da nadem novcanik na ulici,...
10. Primeri If there __________ (be) an election tomorrow, who would you vote for?
They would be offended if I ____________ (not go) to their party.
If they offered me the job, I _____________ (take) it.
If we caught the 10.30 bus, we ______________ (arrive) too early.
11. U if recenici uvek koristimo past simple. U drugoj recenici, umesto would, moguce je upotrebiti might/could.
If you took more exercise, you would feel better (=I’m sure of it.)
If you took more exercise, you might feel better. (=it’s possible that you would feel better.)
If it stopped raining, we would go out.
If it stopped raining, we could go out. (=we would be able to)
12. Type 2 (nastavak) Cesto je nerealna situacija koja se zamišlja, suprotna od stvarne.
Sarah wants to phone Polly, but she can’t do this, because she doesn’t know her number. She says: “If I knew her number, I would phone him.”
U stvarnosti, ona ne zna broj telefona. Ovaj kondicional odnosi se na sadašnjost.
13. Primeri Tom would read more if he had more time. (= but he doesn’t have more time.)
We wouldn’t have any money if we didn’t work. (=but we work.)
If I didn’t want to go to the party, I wouldn’t go (= but I want to go.)
It would be useful if you could drive. (= but you can’t.)
14. I wish I knew I wish (“želeo/la bih”) je izraz koji izražava žaljenje govornika što situacija u sadašnjosti nije onakva kakvu bi želeli.
I wish I knew his phone number. (= I don’t know it and I regret this.)
It’s raining! I wish I had an umbrella.
Iako se iza I wish koristi past simple, zapravo se govori o sadašnjosti:
Pada kiša! Želela bih / Bar da imam kišobran.
15. Primeri Do you ever wish you could fly? (Da li nekad poželiš da umeš da letiš?)
It rains a lot here. I wish it didn’t rain so often. (Ovde cesto pada kiša. Bar da ne pada tako cesto.)
I wish I didn’t have to work tomorrow, but unfortunately I do. (Bar da ne moram da radim sutra, ali nažalost moram.)
I wish I had something to read. (Bar da imam nešto da citam.)
16. If I were / if I was Posle if i wish, može se koristiti were (past tense od glagola to be) u svim licima. Tako se može reci:
If I were you, I wouldn’t buy that coat. Ili If I was you...
I would go out if it weren’t so cold. Ili if it wasn’t...
I wish Carol were here. Ili Carol was here.
17. Conditionals 1 and 2 Type 1: If you have a lie-down, you'll feel better.
Type 2: Ifl had a million pounds, I'd probably buy a yacht.
Present S. (have) odnosi se na mogucu radnju u buducnosti.
Past S. (had) odnosi se na nerealnu radnju.
If I had a million pounds znaci da zapravo nemam milion funti, samo zamišljam da imam.
Type 1: If we take the car, we'll have to pay for parking.
Type 2: If we took the car, we'd have to pay for parking.
Ovde se obe recenice odnose na mogucu radnju u buducnosti. Ali tip 2 oznacava manju verovatnocu da se se radnja dogoditi. If we took the car može da znaci da smo odlucili da ne podemo kolima.
19. Conditional Type 3 If + Past Perfect / would have + past participle
If the road had not been icy, the accident would not have happened.
Za razliku od kondicionala 2, kondicional 3 odnosi se na prošlost, tj. na zamišljenu, nerealnu situaciju u prošlosti.
I didn’t see you when you passed me in the street. (realna situacija u prošlosti). If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (nerealna)
I’m not hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (sada)
I wasn’t hungry. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something. (u prošlosti)
Srpski: Da + perfekt / potencijal
2: Nisam gladna. Da jesam, pojela bih nešto.
3: Nisam bila gladna. Da sam bila, pojela bih nešto.
21. Tip 3 se koristi da se govori o prošlim dogadajima kao da su se odigrali drugacije nego što je stvarno bilo. Koristi se za prekorevanje, kritikovanje, kajanje zbog nekog prošlog dogadaja:
If you'd been a bit more careful, you wouldn't have cut yourself.
If Matthew had set his alarm clock, he wouldn't have overslept.
If I hadn't fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have got the job.
22. Past Perfect se koristi iza I wish na isti nacin:
I wish something had happened = I’m sorry that it didn’t happen.
I wish I’d known Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. (Bar da sam znala da je Gari bolestan. Otišla bih da ga posetim.)
I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much cake.
23. Napomene Umesto would have, možemo koristiti i could/might have:
If the weather hadn’t been so bad, we would have gone out.
... we might have gone out. (perhaps we would have gone out.)
... we could have gone out. (we would have been able to go out.)
24. Primeri Skraceni oblik i za would i za had glasi ‘d:
If I’d seen you, I’d have said hello.
I decided to stay home last night. I’d have gone out if I hadn’t been so tired.
If he’d been looking where he was going, he wouldn’t have walked into the wall.
The view was wonderful. If I’d had a camera with me, I’d have taken some photographs.
25. Type 2 and 3 Uporedi:
Type 2: If you planned things properly, you wouldn't get into a mess. (You don't plan.)
Type 3: If you had planned things properly, you wouldn't have got into a mess. (You didn't plan.)
26. Mixed Conditionals Tip 2 i 3 mogu se kombinovati u recenici (kombinovani kondicional). Tada se tip 2 odnosi na sadašnjost, a tip 3 na prošlost.
If you had planned things at the start, we wouldn't be in this mess now.
If you hadn't left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.
If Matthew was more sensible, he would have worn a suit to the interview.
If I didn't have all this work to do, I would have gone out for the day.
27. Type 2 and type 3
? Mike: You look tired.
Harriet: Well, if you hadn't woken (you / not / wake) me up in the middle of the night, I wouldn't be (I / not be) so tired.
1 Rita: Is Trevor a practical person?
Laura: Trevor? No, he isn't. If ..........……………………. (he / be) practical, …………………………….(he / put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It took him ages.
2 Tom: Why are you sitting in the dark?
David: Let's just say that if............................................. (I / pay) my electricity bill last month, ......................................... (I / not be) in the dark now.
3 Matthew: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was play basketball.
Emma: If ............................................(you / love) me, ……………….(you / not / leave) me here all alone on my birthday.