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KC-135: Particle Damping. Bill Tandy Tim Allison Rob Ross John Hatlelid. Introduction. Team Overview Project Description Theory Design Budget Schedule. The Team-Bill Tandy. Internship Experiences Lead to the Concept Became the ‘de Facto’ Leader

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Kc 135 particle damping

KC-135: Particle Damping

Bill Tandy

Tim Allison

Rob Ross

John Hatlelid


Introduction
Introduction

  • Team Overview

  • Project Description

  • Theory

  • Design

  • Budget

  • Schedule


The team bill tandy
The Team-Bill Tandy

  • Internship Experiences Lead to the Concept

  • Became the ‘de Facto’ Leader

  • Overall Responsibility for the Project

    • Point Man for NASA

    • Attends Department Meetings & Events


The team tim allison
The Team-Tim Allison

  • Hard Working and Diligent

  • Responsible for Funding

  • Arranged Hotel and Travel

  • Theoretical Background


The team rob ross
The Team-Rob Ross

  • Aptitude for Design and Construction

  • Given Responsibility for Construction

    • Cabinet Design and Construction

    • Experiment Materials and Setup

  • Volunteered to Write Weekly Memos


The team john hatlelid
The Team-John Hatlelid

  • Dedicated and Thorough

  • Determined Components of the Experiment

  • Responsibility for Applying for Donations

  • Worked with Rob on Construction


Kc 135 program
KC-135 Program

  • Annual opportunity for undergraduate student research

  • KC-135 Aircraft flies parabolic trajectory to create microgravity environment

  • Microgravity environment available for 20-30 seconds


Goals for this semester
Goals for this Semester

  • Understand the underlying concepts of vibrating cantilever beams

  • Devise an experiment to test the impact of particle damping

  • Gather data on the ground

  • Gather data in flight

  • Compare the two sets of data


Project background
Project Background

  • Ball Aerospace Needed Unique Solutions to Damping Vibrations in Space Structures

  • Particle Damping was Investigated, but Discarded Due to Lack of Data

  • NASA’s Student Flight Program Provided the Perfect Platform for Data Acquisition


Experiment basics
Experiment Basics

  • Vibrating Cantilever Beam Filled with Particles of Different Material Properties


Particle variations
Particle Variations

  • Twelve Pre-Filled Beams

  • Three Materials of Different Density

  • Each Material Will Have Two Sizes

  • Each Size Will Fill the Beam 50% & 75%


Data reduction
Data Reduction

  • Accelerometer will acquire acceleration at the tip of beam

  • Peak acceleration amplitude will be plotted vs. time

  • We will compare the duration & amplitude of transient, steady-state, and decay period vibrations for each sample


Theory overview
Theory Overview

  • Viscoelastic Damping

  • Frictional Damping

  • Beam Response

  • Problems


Theory viscoelastic damping
Theory – Viscoelastic Damping

  • Particles collide with other particles and with the cavity wall

  • Energy only conserved for perfectly elastic collisions, where particles are undeformed

  • Particles may be represented with Maxwell model:

  • Dashpot in Maxwell model represents viscoelastic damping within material

Source: University of Texas


Theory frictional damping
Theory – Frictional Damping

  • Friction forces act on particles as they scrape against each other and cavity walls, converting kinetic energy to thermal energy:

  • Particle-Particle:

  • Particle-Cavity:

  • Particle-Cavity Equations are only useful in a gravitational field

Source: Olson & Drake, University of Dayton


Theory beam response
Theory – Beam Response

  • System is a cantilever beam with sinusoidal base excitation:

  • Differential EOM is:

  • Solution is an infinite sum:

y(t)=Y0sin(t)

u(x,t)

Algebraic Eigensolutions

Solutions to Modal ODEs


Theory problems
Theory - Problems

  • Theoretical solution possible for hollow rod, but with added particles the problem becomes extremely complex

  • A theoretical prediction of the beam’s motion will not be attempted

  • The effect of particles will be analyzed experimentally on the KC-135


Test bay design
Test Bay Design

  • Some factors influencing the design

    • Requirements

    • Size

    • Procedures

    • Materials


Test bay design1
Test Bay Design

  • Some factors influencing the design

    • Requirements

    • Size

    • Procedures

    • Materials


Test bay design2
Test Bay Design

  • Some factors influencing the design

    • Requirements

    • Size

    • Procedures

    • Materials


Test bay design3
Test Bay Design

  • Some factors influencing the design

    • Requirements

    • Size

    • Procedures

    • Materials


Test bay design4
Test Bay Design

  • Some factors influencing the design

    • Requirements

    • Size

    • Procedures

    • Materials


Test bay design5
Test Bay Design

  • Some factors influencing the design

    • Requirements

    • Size

    • Procedures

    • Materials


Test bay design requirements
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design requirements1
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design requirements2
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design requirements3
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design requirements4
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design requirements5
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design requirements6
Test Bay Design: Requirements

  • Structurally sound (withstand 9 G’s)

  • Secure to Aircraft

  • Test equipment security

  • Test equipment containment

  • Weight per spacer

  • Non-hazardous


Test bay design size
Test Bay Design: Size

  • Layout

  • Spacing

  • Weight

  • Timing


Test bay design size1
Test Bay Design: Size

  • Layout

  • Spacing

  • Weight

  • Timing


Test bay design size2
Test Bay Design: Size

  • Layout

  • Spacing

  • Weight

  • Timing


Test bay design size3
Test Bay Design: Size

  • Layout

  • Spacing

  • Weight

  • Timing


Test bay design size4
Test Bay Design: Size

  • Layout

  • Spacing

  • Weight

  • Timing


Test bay design size layout
Test Bay Design: Size / Layout

  • KC-135 cross-section

  • KC-135 floor spacers


Test bay design size layout1
Test Bay Design: Size / Layout

  • KC-135 cross-section

  • KC-135 floor spacers


Test bay design size layout2
Test Bay Design: Size / Layout

  • KC-135 cross-section

  • KC-135 floorspacers


Test bay design size spacing
Test Bay Design: Size / Spacing

  • Ample room for test operation

  • Specimens laid end to end

  • Function generator, Line conditioner, Surge protector

  • Computer, Work space


Test bay design size spacing1
Test Bay Design: Size / Spacing

  • Ample room for test operation

  • Specimens laid end to end

  • Function generator, Line conditioner, Surge protector

  • Computer, Work space


Test bay design size spacing2
Test Bay Design: Size / Spacing

  • Ample room for test operation

  • Specimens laid end to end

  • Function generator, Line conditioner, Surge protector

  • Computer, Work space


Test bay design size spacing3
Test Bay Design: Size / Spacing

  • Ample room for test operation

  • Specimens laid end to end

  • Function generator, Line conditioner, Surge protector

  • Computer, Work space


Test bay design size spacing4
Test Bay Design: Size / Spacing

  • Ample room for test operation

  • Specimens laid end to end

  • Function generator, Line conditioner, Surge protector

  • Computer, Work space


Test bay design size weight
Test Bay Design: Size / Weight

  • 200 lbs per spacer used

  • 6 spacers required

  • 300 lbs max weight

  • Our weight approximately 280 lbs


Test bay design size weight1
Test Bay Design: Size / Weight

  • 200 lbs per spacer used

  • 6 spacers required

  • 300 lbs max weight

  • Our weight approximately 280 lbs


Test bay design size weight2
Test Bay Design: Size / Weight

  • 200 lbs per spacer used

  • 6 spacers required

  • 300 lbs max weight

  • Our weight approximately 280 lbs


Test bay design size weight3
Test Bay Design: Size / Weight

  • 200 lbs per spacer used

  • 6 spacers required

  • 300 lbs max weight

  • Our weight approximately 280 lbs


Test bay design size weight4
Test Bay Design: Size / Weight

  • 200 lbs per spacer used

  • 6 spacers required

  • 300 lbs max weight

  • Our weight approximately 280 lbs


Test bay design size timing
Test Bay Design: Size / Timing

  • 30 second zero G maneuver

  • 40 seconds for test specimen swap and test setup

  • Requires that test areas be uncluttered


Test bay design size timing1
Test Bay Design: Size / Timing

  • 30 second zero G maneuver

  • 40 seconds for test specimen swap and test setup

  • Requires that test areas be uncluttered


Test bay design size timing2
Test Bay Design: Size / Timing

  • 30 second zero G maneuver

  • 40 seconds for test specimen swap and test setup

  • Requires that test areas be uncluttered


Test bay design size timing3
Test Bay Design: Size / Timing

  • 30 second zero G maneuver

  • 40 seconds for test specimen swap and test setup

  • Requires that test areas be uncluttered


Test bay design procedures
Test Bay Design: Procedures

  • Prior to parabola, move into position in front of experimental assembly

  • Unlatch plexiglass door

  • Remove safety pins from specimens

  • Remove point mass from specimen

  • Remove specimen from base mass

  • Unlatch Upper Bay doors

  • Select next specimen from storage bay

  • Note new specimen selected

  • Replace previous specimen in storage bay

  • Close and latch upper bay doors

  • Insert new specimen into base mass

  • Attach point mass

  • Insert safety pins

  • Close and latch Plexiglas bay door

  • Configure LabView for next parabola


Test bay design procedures latch
Test Bay Design: Procedures / Latch

  • Prior to parabola, move into position in front of experimental assembly

  • Unlatch plexiglass door

  • Remove safety pins from specimens

  • Remove point mass from specimen

  • Remove specimen from base mass

  • Unlatch Upper Bay doors

  • Select next specimen from storage bay

  • Note new specimen selected

  • Replace previous specimen in storage bay

  • Close and latch upper bay doors

  • Insert new specimen into base mass

  • Attach point mass

  • Insert safety pins

  • Close and latch Plexiglas bay door

  • Configure LabView for next parabola


Test bay design procedures latch1
Test Bay Design: Procedures / Latch

  • Prior to parabola, move into position in front of experimental assembly

  • Unlatch plexiglass door

  • Remove safety pins from specimens

  • Remove point mass from specimen

  • Remove specimen from base mass

  • Unlatch upper bay doors

  • Select next specimen from storage bay

  • Note new specimen selected

  • Replace previous specimen in storage bay

  • Close and latch upper bay doors

  • Insert new specimen into base mass

  • Attach point mass

  • Insert safety pins

  • Close and latch Plexiglas bay door

  • Configure LabView for next parabola


Test bay design procedures latch2
Test Bay Design: Procedures / Latch

  • Prior to parabola, move into position in front of experimental assembly

  • Unlatch plexiglass door

  • Remove safety pins from specimens

  • Remove point mass from specimen

  • Remove specimen from base mass

  • Unlatch Upper doors

  • Select next specimen from storage bay

  • Note new specimen selected

  • Replace previous specimen in storage bay

  • Close and latch upper bay doors

  • Insert new specimen into base mass

  • Attach point mass

  • Insert safety pins

  • Close and latch Plexiglas bay door

  • Configure LabView for next parabola


Test bay design procedures latch3
Test Bay Design: Procedures / Latch

  • Prior to parabola, move into position in front of experimental assembly

  • Unlatch plexiglass door

  • Remove safety pins from specimens

  • Remove point mass from specimen

  • Remove specimen from base mass

  • Unlatch Upper Bay doors

  • Select next specimen from storage bay

  • Note new specimen selected

  • Replace previous specimen in storage bay

  • Close and latch upper doors

  • Insert new specimen into base mass

  • Attach point mass

  • Insert safety pins

  • Close and latch Plexiglas bay door

  • Configure LabView for next parabola


Test bay design procedures latch4
Test Bay Design: Procedures / Latch

  • Prior to parabola, move into position in front of experimental assembly

  • Unlatch plexiglass door

  • Remove safety pins from specimens

  • Remove point mass from specimen

  • Remove specimen from base mass

  • Unlatch Upper Bay doors

  • Select next specimen from storage bay

  • Note new specimen selected

  • Replace previous specimen in storage bay

  • Close and latch upper bay doors

  • Insert new specimen into base mass

  • Attach point mass

  • Insert safety pins

  • Close and latch Plexiglas door

  • Configure LabView for next parabola


Test bay design materials
Test Bay Design: Materials

  • Cost & Availability to strength ratios

  • Base - MDF

  • Frame - Steel

  • Walls and Shelves – 7 ply


Test bay design materials1
Test Bay Design: Materials

  • Cost & Availability to strength ratios

  • Base - MDF

  • Frame - Steel

  • Walls and Shelves – 7 ply


Test bay design materials2
Test Bay Design: Materials

  • Cost & Availability to strength ratios

  • Base - MDF

  • Frame - Steel

  • Walls and Shelves – 7 ply


Test bay design materials3
Test Bay Design: Materials

  • Cost & Availability to strength ratios

  • Base - MDF

  • Frame - Steel

  • Walls and Shelves – 7 ply


Test bay design materials4
Test Bay Design: Materials

  • Cost & Availability to strength ratios

  • Base - MDF

  • Frame - Steel

  • Walls and Shelves – 7 ply


Test bay design materials base
Test Bay Design: Materials / Base

  • 4 2X4 ft and half in. thick sheets of MDF

  • 4 Casters Rated for 150 lbs each


Test bay design materials base1
Test Bay Design: Materials / Base

  • 4 2X4 ft and half in. thick sheets of MDF

  • 4 Casters Rated for 150 lbs each


Test bay design materials base2
Test Bay Design: Materials / Base

  • 4 2X4 ft and half in. thick sheets of MDF

  • 4 Casters Rated for 150 lbs each


Test bay design materials frame
Test Bay Design: Materials / Frame

  • Steel angle iron

  • Steel L-Clamps

  • Steel truss members


Test bay design materials frame1
Test Bay Design: Materials / Frame

  • Steel angle iron

  • Steel L-Clamps

  • Steel truss members


Test bay design materials frame2
Test Bay Design: Materials / Frame

  • Steel angle iron

  • Steel L-Clamps

  • Steel truss members


Test bay design materials frame3
Test Bay Design: Materials / Frame

  • Steel angle iron

  • Steel L-Clamps

  • Steel truss members




Hardware design
Hardware Design

  • A data acquisition system is needed to determine the response in the beam

  • The system will use two accelerometers

  • The data acquisition system must be lightweight and capable of interfacing with a laptop


Hardware design1
Hardware Design

  • A data acquisition system is needed to determine the response in the beam

  • The system will use two accelerometers

  • The data acquisition system must be lightweight and capable of interfacing with a laptop


Hardware design2
Hardware Design

  • A data acquisition system is needed to determine the response in the beam

  • The system will use two accelerometers

  • The data acquisition system must be lightweight and capable of interfacing with a laptop


Hardware design3
Hardware Design

  • A data acquisition system is needed to determine the response in the beam

  • The system will use two accelerometers

  • The data acquisition system must be lightweight and capable of interfacing with a laptop


Hardware selection
Hardware Selection

  • DAQ System

  • We consulted Travis Fergusson at National Instruments

  • Currently we are looking at using National Instruments hardware for data acquisition


Hardware selection1
Hardware Selection

  • DAQ System

  • We consulted Travis Fergusson at National Instruments

  • Currently we are looking at using National Instruments hardware for data acquisition


Hardware selection2
Hardware Selection

  • DAQ System

  • We consulted Travis Fergusson at National Instruments

  • Currently we are looking at using National Instruments hardware for data acquisition


Daq system
DAQ System

  • NI - 6036 DAQ Card

  • Lightweight

  • Can be interfaced with a laptop

  • Supports SCC line conditioner

  • Has many inputs with high sampling rates

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system1
DAQ System

  • NI - 6036 DAQ Card

  • Lightweight

  • Can be interfaced with a laptop

  • Supports SCC line conditioner

  • Has many inputs with high sampling rates

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system2
DAQ System

  • NI - 6036 DAQ Card

  • Lightweight

  • Can be interfaced with a laptop

  • Supports SCC line conditioner

  • Has many inputs with high sampling rates

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system3
DAQ System

  • NI - 6036 DAQ Card

  • Lightweight

  • Can be interfaced with a laptop

  • Supports SCC line conditioner

  • Has many inputs with high sampling rates

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system4
DAQ System

  • NI - 6036 DAQ Card

  • Lightweight

  • Can be interfaced with a laptop

  • Supports SCC line conditioner

  • Has many inputs with high sampling rates

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system5
DAQ System

  • NI – SC-2345

  • Modular unit for SCC line conditioning

  • SCC line conditioning is low cost and portable

  • With low number of inputs, this is an ideal system

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system6
DAQ System

  • NI – SC-2345

  • Modular unit for SCC line conditioning

  • SCC line conditioning is low cost and portable

  • With low number of inputs, this is an ideal system

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system7
DAQ System

  • NI – SC-2345

  • Modular unit for SCC line conditioning

  • SCC line conditioning is low cost and portable

  • With low number of inputs, this is an ideal system

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system8
DAQ System

  • NI – SC-2345

  • Modular unit for SCC line conditioning

  • SCC line conditioning is low cost and portable

  • With low number of inputs, this is an ideal system

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system9
DAQ System

  • NI – SCC-ACC01

  • Accelerometer module

  • Designed to take inputs from accelerometers and send the signal to the DAQ card

  • Provides power for accelerometer

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system10
DAQ System

  • NI – SCC-ACC01

  • Accelerometer module

  • Designed to take inputs from accelerometers and send the signal to the DAQ card

  • Provides power for accelerometer

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Daq system11
DAQ System

  • NI – SCC-ACC01

  • Accelerometer module

  • Designed to take inputs from accelerometers and send the signal to the DAQ card

  • Provides power for accelerometer

Image courtesy of National Instruments


Accelerometers
Accelerometers

  • Interface with SCC DAQ system

  • Compact size and weight

  • High natural frequency

  • Able to measure low frequencies


Accelerometers1
Accelerometers

  • Interface with SCC DAQ system

  • Compact size and weight

  • High natural frequency

  • Able to measure low frequencies


Accelerometers2
Accelerometers

  • Interface with SCC DAQ system

  • Compact size and weight

  • High natural frequency

  • Able to measure low frequencies


Accelerometers3
Accelerometers

  • Interface with SCC DAQ system

  • Compact size and weight

  • High natural frequency

  • Able to measure low frequencies


Accelerometers4
Accelerometers

  • Honeywell – PA Accelerometer

  • 3-5000 Hz frequency range

  • 50 g range

  • Rugged

  • Natural frequency of 30 kHz

Image courtesy

of Honeywell


Accelerometers5
Accelerometers

  • Honeywell – PA Accelerometer

  • 3-5000 Hz frequency range

  • 50 g range

  • Rugged

  • Natural frequency of 30 kHz

Image courtesy

of Honeywell


Accelerometers6
Accelerometers

  • Honeywell – PA Accelerometer

  • 3-5000 Hz frequency range

  • 50 g range

  • Rugged

  • Natural frequency of 30 kHz

Image courtesy

of Honeywell


Accelerometers7
Accelerometers

  • Honeywell – PA Accelerometer

  • 3-5000 Hz frequency range

  • 50 g range

  • Rugged

  • Natural frequency of 30 kHz

Image courtesy

of Honeywell


Shaker
Shaker

  • Exact shaker is still to be determined

  • Needs to be lightweight

  • Shaker must provide an input of around 100 Hz

Image courtesy

of Labworks


Shaker1
Shaker

  • Exact shaker is still to be determined

  • Needs to be lightweight

  • Shaker must provide an input of around 100 Hz

Image courtesy

of Labworks


Shaker2
Shaker

  • Exact shaker is still to be determined

  • Needs to be lightweight

  • Shaker must provide an input of around 100 Hz

Image courtesy

of Labworks


Shaker input device
Shaker Input Device

  • Shaker input must come from a power supply and function generator

  • Exact function generator and power supply cannot be determined until a shaker has been determined

  • Possible shaker source is from Dr. Stearman


Shaker input device1
Shaker Input Device

  • Shaker input must come from a power supply and function generator

  • Exact function generator and power supply cannot be determined until a shaker has been determined

  • Possible shaker source is from Dr. Stearman


Shaker input device2
Shaker Input Device

  • Shaker input must come from a power supply and function generator

  • Exact function generator and power supply cannot be determined until a shaker has been determined

  • Possible shaker source is from Dr. Stearman





Funding and other aid
Funding and Other Aid

  • NASA gave time & space on the KC-135

  • UT ASE Department gave $3000 and use of Laptop and Digital Video Camera

  • Texas Space Grant Consortium gave $2000 for specific costs

  • Honeywell donated accelerometers

  • National Instruments donated LabView license, possibly other hardware


Current financial status
Current Financial Status

  • Equipment so far has been less expensive than anticipated

  • The surplus funds leave us extra options in case of unexpected changes

  • The project will be completed within budget



Summary
Summary

  • Team Overview

  • Project Description

  • Theory

  • Design

  • Budget

  • Schedule


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