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Introduction to New Media Interaction. Spaces of Interaction. Minority Report. Intelligent billboards. Consider the implications of a paradigm shift in media communications. Considers five key elements of this paradigm Historical view of interactivity Modelling interactivity

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Minority Report

Intelligent billboards


Aims of this lecture

Consider the implications of a paradigm shift in media communications

Considers five key elements of this paradigm

Historical view of interactivity

Modelling interactivity

Interactivity from a design perspective

User interaction (UCD & UXD)

Ubiquitous interaction

Aims of this lecture



From the old to the new
from the old to the new communications


A paradigm shift communications

Thomas Kuhn’s (1970)

Structure of Science

normal science

crisis

new science

revolution


A paradigm shift communications

Structure of Media?

Analogue media

Digital media

  • Crisis

  • Information revolution

  • Digitization of print in 1980s

  • Impact of Internet on ad revenue for newspapers and TV in 2008

New media

Digitalization and convergence of media



Paradigm shift
Paradigm Shift communications

Douglas Engelbart’s 1968 demonstration at Augmentation Research Centre in San Francisco

Before Engelbart, human interaction with a computer was ‘laughable’

Link to videos of 1968 demonstration

and interview with Engelbart


User tools and collective intelligence

Douglas Engelbart 1968 Augmentation Research communications

Computers used to augment ‘collective IQ’

Demonstrates user tools

the mouse

keyboard

hypertext

dynamic file linking

hierarchical structuring of text

videoconferencing

User tools and collective intelligence


Bootstrapping
bootstrapping communications

The augmentation of the human intellect via interaction understood as a collective bootstrapping process


1969 communications

  • Engelbart would go on to hook up the second node of ARPANet in the following year and, during the next decade, would help to build an online community on that network, which has now become the Internet

    (See the MIT New Media Reader, 2003).


What makes the global village is not the content or the message of the medium but the medium itself

‘The medium shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and actions’

(McLuhan 1964 p. 9)

What makes the Global Village is not the content or the message of the medium, but the medium itself


The medium is the me[a]ssage human association and actions’


Not necessarily about Harmony. human association and actions’ Not just about glorious technological change. Big social and political changes to the way we live, work and play

Wapping video


Changing our relations to the media and the economy
Changing Our Relations to the Media and the Economy human association and actions’


Modelling interactivity
Modelling Interactivity human association and actions’


What is new about new media
What is new about ‘new’ media? human association and actions’

  • Differences between old media and new are greater userchoice and control

    Pavlik, 1998 New Media Technology: Cultural and Commercial Perspectives


Interactivity defined
Interactivity human association and actions’ defined


Interactivity
Interactivity human association and actions’

  • 1: mutually or reciprocally active

  • 2: of, relating to, or being a two-way electronic communication system (as a telephone, cable television, or a computer) that involves a user's orders (as for information or merchandise) or responses (as to a poll)

    Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary


Interactivity1
interactivity human association and actions’

Interactivity is based on changing roles of sender/receiver


Simple model of linear communication
simple model of linear communication human association and actions’

message

transmitter

Receiver(s)


Interactive communication
interactive communication human association and actions’

message

Transmitter

Receiver

Receiver(s)

Transmitter(s)


Interaction defined
Interaction defined human association and actions’

message

Communicator A

Communicator B

Response/reaction

response

Communicator A

Bretz (1983) cited in Hanssen, Jankowski and Etienne 1996 Contours of Multimedia


Three levels of interaction rafaeli 1988
Three levels of interaction human association and actions’ Rafaeli (1988)

Bidirectionality

(navigational, click-thru)

Reactiveness

(dynamic database)

Responsiveness

(face-to-face, email, artificial intelligence)


Responsiveness
Responsiveness human association and actions’

  • ELIZA was written at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1964 to 1966.

  • http://www-ai.ijs.si/eliza-cgi-bin/eliza_script

  • Richard Wallace began development of Alice in 1995, while at Lehigh University

  • http://www.pandorabots.com/pandora/talk?botid=f5d922d97e345aa1


Meet jen

“Jenn” at alaskaair.com human association and actions’

Meet Jen


Clever er bots
Clever(er) Bots human association and actions’

  • See http://www.cleverbot.com/


Interactivity from a design perspective
Interactivity from a design perspective human association and actions’


What should interaction designers strive for

Tannenbaum human association and actions’ argues that a good mix of

interactivity

social presence

Like face-to-face, interpersonal communication

What should interaction designers strive for?


Should interaction design strive to be interpersonal
Should human association and actions’ interaction design strive to be interpersonal?

  • How can designers make new media interpersonal?

  • Immediacy of response

  • Non-sequential access to information

  • Adaptability

  • High levels of feedback


Assumptions about face to face communication
Assumptions about human association and actions’ face-to-face communication


Assumptions about face to face communication1

Steve Jones (1999) human association and actions’

CMC has become a race to provide the most ‘lifelike’ interaction possible

problems with face-to-face interaction

It does not necessarily break down barriers of communication….

Assumptions about face-to-face communication


Should all new media be interactive
Should all new media be interactive? human association and actions’

‘…from the perspective of functionality, it is not necessary to always strive for a high degree of interactivity’

Hanssen, Jankowski and Etienne, Contours of Multimedia 1996


User research

What do users consider interactivity to be? human association and actions’

Control over sequence

Greater number of choices

However,

Too much control experienced negatively

Decision-making obstacle to use

A degree of linearity aided user orientation

User Research


User interaction
User Interaction human association and actions’


Human computer interaction hci
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) human association and actions’

  • HCI is about the design of computers, but ‘from the user's point of view’

  • In Draper and Norman (eds) "User-Centered System Design" 1986 p. 2

  • HCI uses cognitive psychology frameworks

Donald Norman


Three paradigms within hci
Three Paradigms Within HCI human association and actions’

1. Ergonomic

2. Cognitive


2 human association and actions’ nd paradigm HCI


2 nd paradigm hci and mental models
2 human association and actions’ nd paradigm HCI and Mental Models


Cognitive walkthrough
Cognitive Walkthrough human association and actions’

  • Making a Fried Breakfast

  • Write down a step-by-step (walk-through) of what you do to make breakfast


Making breakfast
Making Breakfast human association and actions’


Get frying pan ready
Get frying pan ready human association and actions’


Heat fat in pan
Heat fat in pan human association and actions’


Break egg s
Break egg(s) human association and actions’


Fry eggs in pan
Fry eggs in pan human association and actions’


Make toast and butter
Make toast and butter human association and actions’


Put on a plate and eat
Put on a plate and eat human association and actions’


Breakfastmaker version 3 5
BreakfastMaker. version 3.5 human association and actions’


User centred design
User Centred Design human association and actions’


User testing
User Testing human association and actions’


User centred design1
User Centred Design human association and actions’


Paper prototypes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykJ60H4Qkvg&feature=related human association and actions’

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4WbxisFDYk4&feature=related

Paper Prototypes

Videos on paper prototypes

Paper Prototype

Paper Prototype IMP06 HR


See Bill Verplank on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXY


3 rd paradigm hci
3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXYrd Paradigm HCI

  • From Usability to User Experience (UXD)

  • Use and Social Context

  • Ethnography as design method

  • Emotions, Feelings and Affect

  • Task versus Non-Task

  • Ubicomp/Pervasive Computing


Ubiquitous interaction
Ubiquitous Interaction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXY


See Greenfield http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXY

Lectures

On Everyware

See Adam Greenfield on Youtube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GrbGBhzZPic


Challenges for Interaction Design http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXYSee Dan Saffer, Designing for Interaction (2010) Berkeley: New Riders (Greenfield interviewed in chapter nine)

  • “When a room, or a lamppost, or a running shoe is, in and of itself, an information gathering, processing, storage, and transmission device, it's crazy to assume that the keyboard or the traditional GUI makes sense as a channel for interaction “


A multiplicity of interactions
A Multiplicity of Interactions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXY

The Space of Interaction

  • Interaction design will need to consider “multiplicity.”

  • “Instead of the neatly circumscribed space of interaction between a single user and his or her PC, his or her mobile, we're going to have to contend with a situation in which multiple users are potentially interacting with multiple technical systems in a given space at a given moment.”


Quality of user experience
Quality of User Experience http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3rxCLhzmXY

The future is interaction based on voice, gestural and pervasive interfaces

  • “Networked information-processing devices are going to be deployed everywhere in the built environment rather strongly implies the inadequacy of the traditional user interface modalities… most particularly keyboards and keypads.”


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