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Contrastive Phonology English-German


Plosives. [p]pop, stop[b]bed, bomb[t]tense, cut[d]disk, did[k]cold, kick[g]go, gig[?]uh-oh. [Q]butter, better. Fricatives. [f]finger, tough[v]vase, have[T]through, tooth[D]that, teeth[s]swim, kiss[z]zoo, desire, has[S]shy, bush[Z]vision, garage[h]hat, inhall. Fricative

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Contrastive Phonology English-German

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Contrastive phonology english german

Contrastive PhonologyEnglish-German


Plosives

Plosives

[p] pop, stop

[b] bed, bomb

[t] tense, cut

[d] disk, did

[k] cold, kick

[g] go, gig

[?] uh-oh

[Q] butter, better


Fricatives

Fricatives

[f]finger, tough

[v] vase, have

[T]through, tooth

[D]that, teeth

[s]swim, kiss

[z] zoo, desire, has

[S] shy, bush

[Z] vision, garage

[h] hat, inhall


Fricatives1

Fricatives

[s][S]

Stone Stein

Spare sparen

Sling Schlinge

Snow Schnee

Smell schmecken


German fricatives

German Fricatives

[C]ich, Milch, China

[x] Krach, Bach, doch


Affricates

Affricates

[tS]cheap, match

[dZ] jump, garage

[pf] Pferd, Pfahl

[ts] Zeit, Zunge


Nasals

Nasals

[m] mother, from

[n] nasty, can

[Î] sing, king


Liquids and glides

Liquids and Glides

[ò]road, car

[l] light, ball

[y] you, use

[w] window, what


Classification of consonants

Classification of consonants

  • Voicing

  • Manner of articulation

  • Place of articulation


Voiced voiceless consonants

Voiced – voiceless consonants

[f] father

[v] vase

[s] salt

[z] zoo

[t] tree

[d] door


Manner of articulation

Manner of articulation

Plosives

Fricatives

Affricates

Nasals

Liquids

Glides

[p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] [?]

[f] [v] [T] [D] [s] [z] [S] [Z]

[tS] [dZ]

[m] [n] [Î]

[l]

[w] [y] [ò]


Place of articulation

Place of articulation

Bilabial

Labiodental

Interdental

Alveolar

Pala-Alev.

Velar

[p] [b] [m] [w]

[f] [v]

[T] [D]

[t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] [ò]

[S] [Z] [tS] [dZ] [y]

[k] [g] [Î] [w]


English consonants

English consonants


German consonants

German consonants


Differences

Differences

  • Only in English: [T] [D] [w]

  • Only in German: [C] [x] [pf] [ts]

  • R-sounds: [r] [R]

  • Latarals: dark vs. light [l]

  • Phonotactics: [z] beginning of word

  • Phonotactics: [?] beginning of word

  • Phonotactics: [b, d, g, v, z, Z, dZ]


Classification of vowels

Classification of vowels

  • height

  • advancement

  • lip rounding

  • tenseness


English tense vowels

English tense vowels

[i] teeth, keep, heat, he, people, money

[ei] gray, okay, hay, bait, great, they

[u] boot, who, too, taboo

[ou] over, boat, grow, though


The great english vowel shift

The Great English Vowel Shift

  • i u

  • aI aU

  • e(e) o(o)

  • E O

  • {

    • a


English lax vowels

English lax vowels

[I]injury, insist, bit, business, hit

[E] bet, reception, head, says, guest, bed

[æ] bat, anger, had, comrade, rally, hat

[U] put, could, butcher, hood, good

[O] caught, bought, core, wrong

[a] father, sergeant, hospital, car

[ö] but, tough, another

[@] among, diet, salary


English diphthongs

English diphthongs

[aI] island, bite, aisle, hide, high, height

[aw] bout, brown, doubt, flower, loud, how

[oI] boy, rejoice, annoy, toy


English diphthongs1

English diphthongs


English vowel chart

English vowel chart


German tense vowels

German tense vowels

[i] Vieh, Igel

[e] Reh, Esel

[E:] gähnen. Ähre

[y] früh, über

[ï] Böhe, Österreich

[u] Kuh, Uhu

[o] Boot, Ofen

[a:] nah, Aachen


German lax vowels

German lax vowels

[I] Kind, Indien

[E] Stern, England

[Y] Fürst

[û] Gehör, örtlich

[U] Sturm

[O] Holm

[a] Halm

[@] bitte


German diphthongs

German diphthongs

[aI] Eis, reiten, Brei

[aw] braun, Auto, Bau

[oI] heute, Euter


German vowel chart

German vowel chart


Phonemes and allophones

Phonemes and allophones

[thOp] top aspirated

[stOp] stop plain

/p t k/ → [ph th kh] / #__, V'

[p t k] elsewhere


Contrastive complementary distribution

Contrastive – complementary distribution

[l{k] lack [param] wind

[r{k] rack [irim] name

[lif] leaf [pal] foot

[rif] reef [mal] horse

[l] → [r] / V __ V

[l] elsewhere

[r] → [l] / __#

[r] elsewhere


Aspiration

Aspiration

[thOt] top aspirated

[stOp] stop plain

/p t k/ → [ph th kh] / #__, V'

[p t k] elsewhere


Nasalization

Nasalization

[kæn] can

[kãm] come

/V/→ [V] / __N

[V] elsewhere


Vowel lengthening

Vowel lengthening

[bE:d] bed

[h{:v] have

/V/→ [V:] / __ [+voice]

[V] elsewhere


Flapping

Flapping

[böQr] butter

[bEQr] better

/t/→ [Q] / after stressed syllables at the beginning of an unstressed syllable

[t] elsewhere


Interference

Interference

have [h{f]

come [kam]

leg [lEk]

kill [kIl]

is [Is]

bag [b{k]

bomb [bOmp]

back [b{k]

jump [Zömp]

laugh [laf]

begin [b@gIn]

give [gIf]


Auslautverh rtung

Auslautverhärtung

have [h{v]

come [kam]

leg [lEg]

kill [kIl]

is [Iz]

bag [b{g]

bomb [bOmb]

back [b{k]

jump [Zömp]

laugh [laf]

begin [b@gIn]

give [gIv]


Auslautverh rtung1

Auslautverhärtung

Hund Hunde

Weg Wege

tob toben

Bund Bünde

bunt bunte


German

German

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [lEC@ln] smile

[fluxt] flight [riC@n] smell

[lax@n] laugh [fECt@n] to fence


German1

German

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [lEC@ln] smile

[fluxt] flight [riC@n] smell

[lax@n] laugh [fECt@n] to fence


Exercise 1

Exercise 1

  • Provide the phonetic symbol

  • High front tense unrounded vowel

  • Low back lax unrounded vowel

  • Voiced labiodental fricative

  • Voiceless palatal fricative

  • Voiced velar nasal

[i]

[a]

[v]

[S]

[Î]


Exercise 2

Exercise 2

Provide the articulatory features

  • [z]

  • [dZ]

  • [y]

  • [I]

  • [U]

Voiced, alveolar, fricative

Voiced, palatal-alveolar, affricate

Voiced, palatal, glide

High, front, lax, unrounded

High, back, lax rounded


Exercise 3

Exercise 3

Identify the common articulatory features

  • [k, Î, g, x]

  • [v, Z, z, D]

  • [w, y]

  • [i, e, o, u]

  • [e, o, O, E]

velar

voiced fricatives

glides

tense vowels

mid vowels


Exercise 4

Exercise 4

Provide the IPA symbol for the first speech sound

  • though

  • easy

  • knife

  • thought

  • contact

[D]

  • judge

  • Thomas

  • physics

  • civic

  • use

[dZ]

[t]

[i]

[f]

[n]

[s]

[T]

[k]

[y]


Exercise 5

Exercise 5

Write in ordinary English

  • [ritS]

  • [rIdZ]

  • [kaIt]

  • [{ktSn]

  • [T{Îks]

  • [Sules]

reach

ridge

kite

action

thanks

shoelace


Exercise 5 italian

Exercise 5 (Italian)

[faÎgo] mud [tinta] dye

[tEnda] tent [tEÎgo] I keep

[tiÎgo] I dye [fuÎgo] mushroom

[nero] black [byaÎka] shite

[aÎke] also [dansa] dance

[dZEnte] people [sapone] soap


Exercise 5 italian1

Exercise 5 (Italian)

[faÎgo] mud [tinta] dye

[tEnda] tent [tEÎgo] I keep

[tiÎgo] I dye [fuÎgo] mushroom

[nero] black [byaÎka] shite

[aÎke] also [dansa] dance

[dZEnte] people [sapone] soap


Exercise 7 old english

Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven


Exercise 7 old english1

Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven


Exercise 7 old english2

Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven


Exercise 7 old english3

Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [l@Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven


German2

German

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [lEC@ln] smile

[fluxt] flight [riC@n] smell

[lax@n] laugh [fECt@n] to fence