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Contrastive Phonology English-German. Plosives. [p] p op, sto p [b] b ed, bom b [t] t ense, cu t [d] d isk, di d [k] c old, ki ck [g] g o, gi g [ ?] uh-oh. [ Q] bu tt er, be tt er. Fricatives. [ f ] f inger, tou gh [v] v ase, ha v e [ T ] th rough, too th [ D ] th at, tee th

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plosives
Plosives

[p] pop, stop

[b] bed, bomb

[t] tense, cut

[d] disk, did

[k] cold, kick

[g] go, gig

[?] uh-oh

[Q] butter, better

fricatives
Fricatives

[f]finger, tough

[v] vase, have

[T]through, tooth

[D]that, teeth

[s]swim, kiss

[z] zoo, desire, has

[S] shy, bush

[Z] vision, garage

[h] hat, inhall

fricatives1
Fricatives

[s][S]

Stone Stein

Spare sparen

Sling Schlinge

Snow Schnee

Smell schmecken

german fricatives
German Fricatives

[C]ich, Milch, China

[x] Krach, Bach, doch

affricates
Affricates

[tS]cheap, match

[dZ] jump, garage

[pf] Pferd, Pfahl

[ts] Zeit, Zunge

nasals
Nasals

[m] mother, from

[n] nasty, can

[Î] sing, king

liquids and glides
Liquids and Glides

[ò]road, car

[l] light, ball

[y] you, use

[w] window, what

classification of consonants
Classification of consonants
  • Voicing
  • Manner of articulation
  • Place of articulation
voiced voiceless consonants
Voiced – voiceless consonants

[f] father

[v] vase

[s] salt

[z] zoo

[t] tree

[d] door

manner of articulation
Manner of articulation

Plosives

Fricatives

Affricates

Nasals

Liquids

Glides

[p] [b] [t] [d] [k] [g] [?]

[f] [v] [T] [D] [s] [z] [S] [Z]

[tS] [dZ]

[m] [n] [Î]

[l]

[w] [y] [ò]

place of articulation
Place of articulation

Bilabial

Labiodental

Interdental

Alveolar

Pala-Alev.

Velar

[p] [b] [m] [w]

[f] [v]

[T] [D]

[t] [d] [s] [z] [n] [l] [ò]

[S] [Z] [tS] [dZ] [y]

[k] [g] [Î] [w]

differences
Differences
  • Only in English: [T] [D] [w]
  • Only in German: [C] [x] [pf] [ts]
  • R-sounds: [r] [R]
  • Latarals: dark vs. light [l]
  • Phonotactics: [z] beginning of word
  • Phonotactics: [?] beginning of word
  • Phonotactics: [b, d, g, v, z, Z, dZ]
classification of vowels
Classification of vowels
  • height
  • advancement
  • lip rounding
  • tenseness
english tense vowels
English tense vowels

[i] teeth, keep, heat, he, people, money

[ei] gray, okay, hay, bait, great, they

[u] boot, who, too, taboo

[ou] over, boat, grow, though

the great english vowel shift
The Great English Vowel Shift
  • i u
  • aI aU
  • e(e) o(o)
  • E O
  • {
    • a
english lax vowels
English lax vowels

[I]injury, insist, bit, business, hit

[E] bet, reception, head, says, guest, bed

[æ] bat, anger, had, comrade, rally, hat

[U] put, could, butcher, hood, good

[O] caught, bought, core, wrong

[a] father, sergeant, hospital, car

[ö] but, tough, another

[@] among, diet, salary

english diphthongs
English diphthongs

[aI] island, bite, aisle, hide, high, height

[aw] bout, brown, doubt, flower, loud, how

[oI] boy, rejoice, annoy, toy

german tense vowels
German tense vowels

[i] Vieh, Igel

[e] Reh, Esel

[E:] gähnen. Ähre

[y] früh, über

[ï] Böhe, Österreich

[u] Kuh, Uhu

[o] Boot, Ofen

[a:] nah, Aachen

german lax vowels
German lax vowels

[I] Kind, Indien

[E] Stern, England

[Y] Fürst

[û] Gehör, örtlich

[U] Sturm

[O] Holm

[a] Halm

[@] bitte

german diphthongs
German diphthongs

[aI] Eis, reiten, Brei

[aw] braun, Auto, Bau

[oI] heute, Euter

phonemes and allophones
Phonemes and allophones

[thOp] top aspirated

[stOp] stop plain

/p t k/ → [ph th kh] / #__, V\'

[p t k] elsewhere

contrastive complementary distribution
Contrastive – complementary distribution

[l{k] lack [param] wind

[r{k] rack [irim] name

[lif] leaf [pal] foot

[rif] reef [mal] horse

[l] → [r] / V __ V

[l] elsewhere

[r] → [l] / __#

[r] elsewhere

aspiration
Aspiration

[thOt] top aspirated

[stOp] stop plain

/p t k/ → [ph th kh] / #__, V\'

[p t k] elsewhere

nasalization
Nasalization

[kæn] can

[kãm] come

/V/→ [V] / __N

[V] elsewhere

vowel lengthening
Vowel lengthening

[bE:d] bed

[h{:v] have

/V/→ [V:] / __ [+voice]

[V] elsewhere

flapping
Flapping

[böQr] butter

[bEQr] better

/t/→ [Q] / after stressed syllables at the beginning of an unstressed syllable

[t] elsewhere

interference
Interference

have [h{f]

come [kam]

leg [lEk]

kill [kIl]

is [Is]

bag [b{k]

bomb [bOmp]

back [b{k]

jump [Zömp]

laugh [laf]

begin [[email protected]]

give [gIf]

auslautverh rtung
Auslautverhärtung

have [h{v]

come [kam]

leg [lEg]

kill [kIl]

is [Iz]

bag [b{g]

bomb [bOmb]

back [b{k]

jump [Zömp]

laugh [laf]

begin [[email protected]]

give [gIv]

auslautverh rtung1
Auslautverhärtung

Hund Hunde

Weg Wege

tob toben

Bund Bünde

bunt bunte

german
German

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [[email protected]] smile

[fluxt] flight [[email protected]] smell

[[email protected]] laugh [[email protected]] to fence

german1
German

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [[email protected]] smile

[fluxt] flight [[email protected]] smell

[[email protected]] laugh [[email protected]] to fence

exercise 1
Exercise 1
  • Provide the phonetic symbol
  • High front tense unrounded vowel
  • Low back lax unrounded vowel
  • Voiced labiodental fricative
  • Voiceless palatal fricative
  • Voiced velar nasal

[i]

[a]

[v]

[S]

[Î]

exercise 2
Exercise 2

Provide the articulatory features

  • [z]
  • [dZ]
  • [y]
  • [I]
  • [U]

Voiced, alveolar, fricative

Voiced, palatal-alveolar, affricate

Voiced, palatal, glide

High, front, lax, unrounded

High, back, lax rounded

exercise 3
Exercise 3

Identify the common articulatory features

  • [k, Î, g, x]
  • [v, Z, z, D]
  • [w, y]
  • [i, e, o, u]
  • [e, o, O, E]

velar

voiced fricatives

glides

tense vowels

mid vowels

exercise 4
Exercise 4

Provide the IPA symbol for the first speech sound

  • though
  • easy
  • knife
  • thought
  • contact

[D]

  • judge
  • Thomas
  • physics
  • civic
  • use

[dZ]

[t]

[i]

[f]

[n]

[s]

[T]

[k]

[y]

exercise 5
Exercise 5

Write in ordinary English

  • [ritS]
  • [rIdZ]
  • [kaIt]
  • [{ktSn]
  • [T{Îks]
  • [Sules]

reach

ridge

kite

action

thanks

shoelace

exercise 5 italian
Exercise 5 (Italian)

[faÎgo] mud [tinta] dye

[tEnda] tent [tEÎgo] I keep

[tiÎgo] I dye [fuÎgo] mushroom

[nero] black [byaÎka] shite

[aÎke] also [dansa] dance

[dZEnte] people [sapone] soap

exercise 5 italian1
Exercise 5 (Italian)

[faÎgo] mud [tinta] dye

[tEnda] tent [tEÎgo] I keep

[tiÎgo] I dye [fuÎgo] mushroom

[nero] black [byaÎka] shite

[aÎke] also [dansa] dance

[dZEnte] people [sapone] soap

exercise 7 old english
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [[email protected]Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

exercise 7 old english1
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [[email protected]Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

exercise 7 old english2
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [[email protected]Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

exercise 7 old english3
Exercise 7 (Old English)

[briÎgan] to bring [lUvU] love

[driÎkan] to drink [mannes] mans

[f{st] fast [mo:na] moon

[fi:fta] fifth [ni:xsta] next

[fOlk] folk [Offrian] to offer

[fOnt] font [Ovans] oven

[ha:t] hot [n:on] noon

[hlo:T] troop [ru:x] rough

[TUÎgEn] full grown [[email protected]Îgan] to lengthen

[nixt] night [hr{vn] raven

german2
German

[axt] eight [IC] I

[bux] book [ECt] real

[lOx] hole [sprIC] speak

[ho:x] hoch [[email protected]] smile

[fluxt] flight [[email protected]] smell

[[email protected]] laugh [[email protected]] to fence

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