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Review for Benchmark Obj. 3 chemistry Obj. 4 Physics. Nov. 22-23. Obj. 3 Chemistry. Structure of an atom:. +. +. +. The Atom’s “Center”. Protons and neutrons are grouped together to form the “center” or nucleus of an atom. Notice that the electrons are not apart of the nucleus. -. -.

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Review for benchmark obj 3 chemistry obj 4 physics

Review for BenchmarkObj. 3 chemistryObj. 4 Physics

Nov. 22-23


Obj 3 chemistry
Obj. 3 Chemistry

  • Structure of an atom:


The atom s center

+

+

+

The Atom’s “Center”

  • Protons and neutrons are grouped together to form the “center” or nucleus of an atom.

Notice that the electrons are not apart of the nucleus

-

-

-


Obj 3 chemistry1
Obj. 3 Chemistry

  • Protons: Positive Charge(+)

  • Neutrons: Neutral Charge(o)

  • Electrons: Negative Charge (-)

  • 1st shell- 2 electrons

  • 2nd shell- 8 electrons

  • 3rd shell- 8 electrons


Hydrogen h atom

= 1

= 0

= 1

+

-

Hydrogen (H) Atom

  • Notice the one electron in the first orbital

-

+

Even though there are no neutrons present,

Hydrogen is still considered an atom


Oxygen o atom

+

= 8

= 8

= 8

+

+

+

-

Oxygen (O) Atom

  • Notice the two electrons in the first orbital/level and the six in the second

How many

more electrons

can fit in the 2nd

orbital/ level?

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

-


Sodium na atom

+

= 11

= 12

= 11

+

+

+

-

Sodium (Na) Atom

  • Notice the two electrons in the first orbital/level, eight in the second, and one in the third

-

-

-

How many

more electrons

can fit in the 3rd

orbital/ level?

-

+

+

+

-

-

-

+

+

-

-

-

-


Obj 3 chemistry2
Obj. 3 Chemistry

  • Proton- identifies the element

  • Gives the name of the element ex. Hydrogen

  • Atomic Number- tell the number of protons in an atom

Atomic number


Obj 3 chemistry3
Obj. 3 Chemistry

  • Atomic Mass:

    Add Protons and Neutrons

    in the nucleus


Obj 3 chemistry4
Obj.3 Chemistry

  • To find neutrons:

    Subtract atomic mass- atomic number

Atomic number

Atomic mass


Obj 3 chemistry5
Obj. 3 Chemistry

  • Element:

  • A pure substance made up of one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means

  • 90 occur naturally on earth

  • 25 were synthesized (made) by scientists


Dmitri mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev

  • In the 1860’s he devised a periodic table where the elements were ordered by their atomic masses

  • He did this by grouping elements together according to their similarities

Image taken from:

http://jscms.jrn.columbia.edu/cns/2006-04-18/fido-luxuriantflowinghair/mendeleev/


Metals
Metals

Location

  • Found on the left of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table (exception  Hydrogen)

    Chemical Properties

  • Have few electrons in their outer energy level, thus lose electrons easily

    Physical Properties

  • ductile, good conductors, malleable, shiny, most are solid @ room temperature

Image taken from:

http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictableelements/ig/Element-Photo-Gallery.--98/Sodium.htm


Non metals
Non-Metals

Location

  • Most found to the right of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table

    Chemical Properties

  • Most have almost full outer energy levels, thus they tend to gain electrons; some have completely full outer level

    Physical Properties

  • not ductile or malleable, not shiny, poor conductors, most are solid, but some are gas at room temperature

Image taken from:

http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/resource/ptable/cl.htm

Image taken from:

https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/rockandmineral/sulfur.asp


Metalloids
Metalloids

Location

  • Border the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table

    Chemical Properties

  • Most atoms have ½ (≈) complete set of electrons in outer level

    Physical Properties

  • have properties of both metals and non-metals

Image taken from:

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113863/bios.shtml

Image taken from:

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113863/bios.shtml


Period row properties
Period (Row) Properties

  • Seven periods on a periodic table

  • Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move from the left to the right in a period

  • All atoms of the elements in the same period have the same number of orbitals/levels/shells

    • Example Period 1 = 1 orbital

      • Period 2 = 2 orbitals

      • Period 3 = 3 orbitals

      • Etc…


Group family properties
Group (Family) Properties

  • Eighteen groups on the periodic table (numbered from left to right)

  • Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move from the top down in a group (family)

  • Atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer orbitals/levels of their atoms (known as valence electrons)

    • Exceptions:

      • Transition elements (3-12)

      • Hydrogen (could be 1 or 17)

      • Helium (actually has 2 valence electrons)

  • Elements in groups usually have similar physical and chemical properties


Group family names
Group (Family) Names

Alkali Metals

Alkaline Earth Metals

Noble Gases

Boron Group

Nitrogen Group

Carbon Group

Oxygen Group

Halogens

Transition Metals

Periods


Using the periodic table
Using the Periodic Table

  • The following is important information found on the periodic table.

Atomic Number

(Number of protons)

Element Symbol

(Written with a capital letter or a capital followed by a lower case if two letters )

Element Name

Atomic Mass

(Rounded to a whole number, equals

the number of protons and neutrons)


Changing matter

October 10, 2006

Changing Matter

  • Matter can be changed two ways:

    • Physically

      • Physical reaction

      • Physical change

    • Chemically

      • Chemical reaction

      • Chemical change


Physical changes
Physical Changes

  • DoNOT CHANGE THE TYPE OF MATTER

    • Nothing new or different is formed

    • Could be a change in:

      • Mass

      • Volume

      • Density

      • Change in state

      • Color

      • Shape

Size


Examples of physical changes
Examples of Physical Changes

  • Boiling

  • Freezing

  • Dissolving

  • Breaking

  • Making a mixture

    • 2 or more types of matter (substances) mixed together

      • Not in specific amounts

      • Can be separated physically


Chemical changes
Chemical Changes

  • Evidence of a chemical reaction

    • Formation of gas

    • Formation of precipitate

    • Change in color

    • Change in energy


Chemical changes1
Chemical Changes

  • Chemical reactions can be represented by equations

    CaCO3 CaO + CO2

Reactants Products


Balancing equations
Balancing Equations

  • The equation for the burning of methane gas in oxygen is:

    • CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O

Subscript

Shows # of atoms

Coefficient

Shows # of molecules


Chemical changes2
Chemical Changes

  • Atoms are re-arranged, NOT created or destroyed

    • Law of Conservation of Matter

    • Law of Conservation of Mass


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