Political Institutions. Levels of Government Executives, Cabinet, Bureaucracies, Legislatures, Judiciary . Defining Political Institutions. Political Institutions – structures of a political system that carry out the work of governing. Executives Legislatures Bureaucracies
Levels of Government
Executives, Cabinet, Bureaucracies, Legislatures, Judiciary
Unitary System – concentrates all policymaking powers in one central government (geographic) place
Ex.) Britain, Iran, China
Confederal System – spreads the power among many sub-units and has a weak central government.
Ex.) United States (1781-1788)
Federal System – divides the power between the central government & the sub-units
Ex.) Russia, Mexico, Nigeria, U.S.
British Government Example
Queen Elizabeth II
President Barack Obama
Functions of Legislatures
Ex.) Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
Ex.) Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
Concerns over Political Role/Powers
Former white House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel had tremendous influence in the executive branch, yet he wasn’t elected to this position.
Role of the Judiciary
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
1st Supreme Court decision to determine an act of Congress was unconstitutional – thus establishing the authority of Judicial Review