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Eukaryotes and Viruses. Chapters 12 and 13. Fungi. Heterotrophic, Mainly Opportunistic Pathogens. Distinguishing Characteristics of Fungi. Chemoheterotrophic Cells walls composed of Chitin Diverse Metabolic Capabilities for Complex Carbohydrates Xerophilic Aerobic/Facultative Anaerobes

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eukaryotes and viruses

Eukaryotes and Viruses

Chapters 12 and 13

fungi
Fungi

Heterotrophic, Mainly Opportunistic Pathogens

distinguishing characteristics of fungi
Distinguishing Characteristics of Fungi
  • Chemoheterotrophic
  • Cells walls composed of Chitin
  • Diverse Metabolic Capabilities for Complex Carbohydrates
  • Xerophilic
  • Aerobic/Facultative Anaerobes
  • Prefer Low pH
vegetative growth
Vegetative Growth
  • Filamentous Fungi
  • Yeasts
  • Dimorphic Fungi
filamentous fungi
Filamentous Fungi
  • Hyphae (individual strands)
    • Septate
    • Coenocytic
  • Mycelium (mass of hyphae)
  • Aerial Hyphae
  • Mass of Conidia
yeast
Yeast
  • Bud
  • Bud Scar
  • Pseudohyphae
dimorphic fungi
Dimorphic Fungi
  • Medically very important
  • Hyphae in the Environment, Yeast in the host
  • Temperature and CO2 are common triggers
fungal lifecycle
Fungal Lifecycle
  • Haplodiplontic Lifecycles
  • Asexual Cycle
  • Sexual Cycle
haplodiplontic life cycle
Haplodiplontic Life Cycle

Gametophyte

(n)

Haploid

Egg

Spores

Sperm

Zygote

Sporocyte

Sporophyte

(2n)

Embryo

Sporangia

Diploid

asexual spores
Asexual Spores
  • Genetically Identical to the parent
  • Genetically Haploid
  • Several Types
    • Conidia
    • Blastoconidia
    • Arthroconidia
    • Chlamydoconidia
    • Sporangiospores
sexual spores
Sexual Spores
  • Haploid Spores Arising from a Diploid Cell
  • Genetic Recombination of compatible mating types
  • Fungi are classified on the basis of their sexual cycles.
medically important phyla
Medically Important Phyla
  • Zygomycota
  • Ascomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Deuteromycota (Asexual Fungi)
zygomycota
Zygomycota
  • Coenocytic Hyphae
  • Not a phylogentically distinct group.
  • Sporoangiospores and Zygospores
  • Rhizopus is a common genus.
ascomycota
Ascomycota
  • Septate Hyphae and Yeasts
  • Largest group of classified fungi
  • Most Deuteromycota are classified in this group by Genetics
  • Ascospores(in an ascus) and Conidia
basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
  • Septate Hyphae
  • Basidiospores produced on Basidium, some produce conidia (though this is crude terminology)
deuteromycota
Deuteromycota
  • Depreciated, though still used Taxon
  • Holding Phyla with no observed sexual state
  • Most have been reclassified as Ascomycota based on Genetics
  • Leads to confusion over nomenclature
    • Telomorph : Sexual State (preferred name)
    • Anamorph : Asexual State (common name)
fungal disease
Fungal Disease
  • Mycoses are not common but difficult to treat.
  • Mycoses are defined by the depth of tissue affected.
  • Most fungi are either superficial or opportunistic pathogens… though overt pathogens exist.
protozoa
Protozoa

Diverse Unicellular Eukarya Pathogens

protozoans
Protozoans
  • Phylogenetically, a diverse and ill-defined group.
  • Medically we are worried about the heterotrophs, not the photosynthetic phyla
  • Complex lifecycles with unique stages
    • Trophozoite
    • Schizogony
    • Cyst
archaezoa
Archaezoa
  • Lack Mitochondria, but possess relics called mitosomes.
  • Move by means of Flagella
  • Possess two nuclei.

Giardia intestinalis

microspora
Microspora
  • No mitochondria
  • No microtubules
  • Obligate intra-cellular pathogens
  • Common in AIDS
amoebozoa
Amoebozoa
  • Phylogenetically these organisms are not linked to a definite clade.
  • Movement through pseudopods
apicomplexa
Apicomplexa
  • Named for the Apical complex, an organelle used for cell penetration.
  • Complex Lifecycles with both a definitive and intermediate host
eugelnozoa
Eugelnozoa
  • Hemoflagellates, more appropriately called Kinetoplastids, are the pathogenic members.
  • Possess unique single mitochondrion called kinetoplasts.
  • Many are Parasitic
helminths
Helminths

The Worms

characteristics of pathogens
Characteristics of Pathogens
  • They may lack a digestive system
  • They have a reduced nervous system
  • Lacking or atrophied movement systems
  • Complex reproductive systems
  • May be dioecious or monoecious
platyhelminthes
Platyhelminthes
  • Flatworms, so called for overall flat body plan.
  • Actually the Subphylum Neodermata
  • All have a Neodermis (also called a cuticle) to protect them from the host and lack adaptations such as eyepores (found in free-living flatworms)
trematodes
Trematodes
  • Flukes
  • Ventral and Oral Sucker to attach to host tissue.
  • Life Cycles involve more than a single host and mutiple developmental stages
cestodes
Cestodes
  • Tapeworms
  • Three body sections, scolex, neck and proglottids
  • No digestive system
  • Mature proglottids are released through feces of host.
phylum nematoda
Phylum Nematoda
  • Roundworms, due to the circular body cross-section.
  • Not to be confused with Phylum Annileda, the segmented worms (i.e. Earthworms)
  • Complete digestive systems
  • Sexually dimorphic
  • Numerous through out the environment
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