Cognition
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Cognition. Session One. Cognition The beginning. Cognition is a relatively Modern field of study The first books that looked at looked at the brain ( as opposed to a mind) did not surface until the 1970s Use both sides of your brain - ( Tony Buzan) 1974

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Cognition

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Cognition

Session One


CognitionThe beginning

Cognition is a relatively Modern field of study

  • The first books that looked at looked at the brain ( as opposed to a mind) did not surface until the 1970s

    • Use both sides of your brain- ( Tony Buzan) 1974

    • Drawing on the right side of your brain-(Betty Edwards) 1979


CognitionThe beginning

  • IN 1980 Brain Based Education emerged as a whole new field

    • The field was driven by new research in

      • Neurobiology

      • Cognitive Neuroscience

      • New technologies that allowed scientist to map and view the brain like it was never seen before. Especially by allowing us to see it while a person was still alive and without surgery ( MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging/ PET Positron-emission tomography) scans


CognitionThe beginning

  • Some of this research lead to the following works:

    • Human Learning- Leslie Hart

    • Frames of mind; the theory of multiple intelligences- Howard Gardner

    • Making conections:teaching and the human brain- Caine an Caine


CognitionThe beginning

  • First ¾

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyYhoCqo58w


CognitionThe beginning

  • By the 1990 the field exploded

  • Almost every discipline had an angle on using brain based research, sociology, education, psychiatry, nutrition


Cognitionwhat is brain based research?

  • Brain based education is concerned with primarily three concepts (ESP)

    • Student engagement

    • Instructional strategies

    • Learning principles


Cognitionwhat is brain based research?

  • It is learning with the Brain in mind

  • It encourages you to consider the brain in your decision making


Cognitionas we go on

  • As we begin to explore the brain and how it operates, you may learn that strategies and practices that were/ are common in some schools, were/are counter productive to learning

  • Many of the researchers that support brain-based research feel that many of the policies that are used in today’s schools are against brain based research.

  • Brain based researchers feel that the use of such strict rules, the use of reward and punishment and anti-brain-based methods


Cognitionas we go on

  • The old theory places a responsibility on the student- if learning does not take place, it must be the student’s fault

  • What brain- based research is against

    • Behaviorism- feels that it looks as children as rats

    • Using one strategy for everybody


Three Key understandings about the brain and learning

  • Events in one part of the brain, effect learning in other parts

  • Often what students learn is not what is intended by the teacher

  • The brain is highly adaptable and designed to respond to the environment


How the brain learns

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uOIWVo-4-lc


How the brain learns

  • The brain processes different types of learning through different pathways

    • Words, pictures are processed through different senses


How the brain learns

  • Input is initially processed in the Thalamus

  • It is the “server” or central switching area of the brain

  • Simultaneously, the information is routed to other specific parts of the brain

  • Ex. Language to the temporal lobe


How the brain learns

  • The brain process information very quickly and decides on information quickly

  • It decides to :

    • Move it into storage in another portion of the rain,

    • React to it

    • Or decides if it is dangerous and activates the amygdala, our protection system

    • Or the information is discarded

  • All this is done within 5 to 20 seconds

  • New information is filtered and stored, or filtered and dismissed and never gets stored.


How the brain learns

  • Information that is stored, is organized and indexed by the hippocampus and then stored in the cortex.

  • The original sorting takes seconds, but storage can take hours or days and even some reports of weeks.

  • Each type of input takes a different path to be stored (emotional, spatial, vocabulary, skill learning)


How the brain learns

  • All of the sensory input, gets sorted, prioritized and stored and it takes place at a subconscious level


How the brain learns

  • Facts about the brain

    • A healthy brain is pink

    • Soft enough to cut with a butter knife

    • The outer surface is the cerebral cortex, The cerebral cortex makes up about 70 % of the nervous system and is connected by a million miles of nerves cells


How the brain learns

  • Facts about the brain

    • A brain contains between 50 billion and 100 billion neurons

    • A healthy brain weighs between 2 to 4 pounds the average is 3 pounds

    • Size may not matter, Albert Einstein’s brain was average size, the French Writer Honare de Blazac’s was 40% larger than average

    • The human brain has the largest amount of any species on earth of uncommitted cortex, this gives us great flexibility and capacity for learning.


How the brain learns

  • Cells of the central nervous system

    • We lose brain cells all of the time,

    • This process is called apoptosis ( cell Death)

    • Estimates are that we lose about 18 million a year

    • Between the ages of 20 to 70 years old.

    • Even losing this many, it would take centuries to loose our mind,

    • In certain parts of the brain, we grow cells back ( new research)


Neurons

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyNkAuX29OU


How the brain learns

  • Cells of the central nervous system Types:

    • Glial Cells- produce myelin, for axons, provide structural support for the brain, transport nutrients regulates immune system. ( Albert Ein had a lot of these)

    • Neurons-passes information to each other across synapses, one neuron may connect with between 1,00 to 10,000 other neurons

    • the more connections, the better.

    • Dendrites- Branches from cell bodies-the receivers of information

    • Axons- has the ability to expand connect to other cells, mostly dendrites, conducts information in the form of electrical stimulation and transports chemical substances


What is learning?

  • The physiological definition is very bland

  • It is when an electrical impulse travels down the axon, where it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap. This happens thousands of times every second.

  • When this reaction is impaired, learning is effected.

    • For examples high levels of the stress hormone cortisol reduce learning and memory


Divisions of the brain

  • Brain stem- connects the brain and the spinal chord, houses the pons, medula, oblongata, these areas regulate the automatic and nonconscious behaviors such as heart rate and breathing


Divisions of the brain

  • Cerebellum- is our guide through life, controls – balance, posture and motor control

  • Located in the back of the brain just under the occipital lobe,

  • The size of a small fist/ one tenth of the brain

  • Thought to be the most complex structure of the brain

  • IT IS ALS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROCESSING MUCH OF OUR LEARNING


Divisions of the brainCerebellum continued

  • IT IS ALS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROCESSING MUCH OF OUR LEARNING- WHY??

  • Think about it, how to you learn to move, throw, jump,

  • This is all controlled in the Cerebellum

  • When learning to do these things, what skills are necessary for learning?


Divisions of the brainCerebellum continued

  • When learning to do these things, what skills are necessary for learning?

  • Think about leaning to throw, jump/ Each of these is a sense of doing, seeing where you were wrong and adjusting, Too much muscle, made the throw go to far.

  • This helps create a network of sensory areas.

  • it teaches prediction, sequencing, mental rehearsal.


Divisions of the brain

  • Diencephalon- is located at the midline of the brain, Includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and some other smaller midbrain structures

  • Thalamus is the primary place for sorting for all sensory information

  • The hypothalamus performs many vital functions such as , sensing environmental information and adjusting the body, the body’s thermostat- adjust for noise, humidity

  • Also signal hunger thirst, sex drive-

  • The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating homeostasis and sexual desire


Divisions of the brain

  • Cerebrum-made up of four primary areas called Lobes

  • Occipital- located midbrain, primary responsibility vision- connects visual to language

  • Frontal-located in the front, responsible for purposeful acts judgment, planning , creativity

  • Parietal-located top back, process higher sensory and language functions

  • Temporal-located around your ears, responsible for hearing, memory, meaning and language


Micro level of learning

  • Although I stated earlier that learning takes place in the axon to dendrite connection, a significant amount of learning takes place outs side of that.

  • trillions of bits of information are stored in protein molecules called peptides, they travel through the brain and deposit their learning in different receptors.


Thalamus and Hypothalamus

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDZPmPWdT_8&list=PLDB0561B6E4C46EF9


Frontal Lobe

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z78fYCGR7WY&list=PLDB0561B6E4C46EF9


The four Lobes of the Cerebrum

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vy8EvyQoQIE&list=PLDB0561B6E4C46EF9


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