Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life
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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. What do you know about evolution? What is evolution? Gradual change over time What is paleontology? Study of fossils

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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

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Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

    • Gradual change over time

  • What is paleontology?

    • Study of fossils

    • Allows for relative dating – older or younger – layer found in


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

    • Inheritance of acquired characteristics

    • Evolution within an organism’s lifetime – use & disuse

    • Examples – Blacksmith, giraffe

  • What was Darwin’s view?

    • Descent with modification – tree of life

    • REPRODUCTION of the fittest

    • not SOTF

    • Story time…


Figure 22 5 the voyage of hms beagle

England

EUROPE

NORTH

AMERICA

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

Galápagos

Islands

HMS Beagle in port

AFRICA

SOUTH

AMERICA

Darwin in 1840,

after his return

AUSTRALIA

Cape of

Good Hope

Andes

Tasmania

Cape Horn

New

Zealand

Tierra del Fuego

Figure 22.5 The voyage of HMS Beagle


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

    • Inheritance of acquired characteristics

    • Evolution within an organism’s lifetime – use & disuse

    • Examples – Blacksmith, giraffe

  • What was Darwin’s view?

    • Descent with modification – tree of life

    • REPRODUCTION of the fittest

    • not SOTF

    • Story time…..

    • Studied Galapagos finches


Figure 22 6 beak variation in gal pagos finches

(a) Cactus eater. The long,sharp beak of the cactusground finch (Geospizascandens) helps it tearand eat cactus flowersand pulp.

(c) Seed eater. The large groundfinch (Geospiza magnirostris)has a large beak adapted forcracking seeds that fall fromplants to the ground.

(b) Insect eater. The green warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) uses itsnarrow, pointed beak to grasp insects.

Figure 22.6 Beak variation in Galápagos finches


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

    • Inheritance of acquired characteristics

    • Evolution within an organism’s lifetime – use & disuse

    • Examples – Blacksmith, giraffe

  • What was Darwin’s view?

    • Descent with modification – tree of life

    • REPRODUCTION of the fittest

    • not SOTF

    • Story time…..

    • Studied Galapagos finches

    • 1859 – The Origin of Species – 2 main points

      • Descent with Modification (evolution) f/ common ancestor

      • Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution


Figure 22 7 descent with modification

Sirenia

(Manatees

and relatives)

Loxodonta

cyclotis

(Africa)

Elephas

maximus

(Asia)

Loxodonta

africana

(Africa)

Hyracoidea

(Hyraxes)

Years ago

Stegodon

Mammut

Mammuthus

Deinotherium

Platybelodon

Millions of years ago

Barytherium

Moeritherium

Figure 22.7 Descent with modification


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

    • Natural selection is differential reproductive success

    • Natural selection occurs through interactions between the environment and the variability among individual organisms in a population


Figure 22 9 variation in a population

Figure 22.9 Variation in a population


Figure 22 11 camouflage as an example of evolutionary adaptation

(a)A flower mantidin Malaysia

(b)A stick mantidin Africa

Figure 22.11 Camouflage as an example of evolutionary adaptation


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

    • Natural selection is differential reproductive success

    • Natural selection occurs through interactions between the environment and the variability among individual organisms in a population

    • The product of natural selection is the adaptation of a population of organisms to their environment

  • What is artificial selection?

    • - Selective breeding to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits


Figure 22 10 artificial selection

Lateral

buds

Terminal

bud

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage

Flower

cluster

Leaves

Cauliflower

Kale

Stem

Flower

and

stems

Broccoli

Wild mustard

Kohlrabi

Figure 22.10 Artificial selection


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

  • What is artificial selection?

  • What is the evidence for evolution?

    • Homologous structures – similar structures with different functions show signs of evolution from a common ancestor, may be vestigial organs


Figure 22 14 mammalian forelimbs homologous structures

Human

Cat

Bat

Whale

Figure 22.14 Mammalian forelimbs: Homologous structures


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

  • What is artificial selection?

  • What is the evidence for evolution?

    • Homologous structures – similar structures with different functions show signs of evolution from a common ancestor, may be vestigial organs

    • Comparative embryology

      • Pharyngeal gill slits

      • Post-anal tail


Figure 22 15 anatomical similarities in vertebrate embryos

Pharyngeal

pouches

Post-anal

tail

Chick embryo

Human embryo

Figure 22.15 Anatomical similarities in vertebrate embryos


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

  • What is artificial selection?

  • What is the evidence for evolution?

    • Homologous structures – similar structures with different functions show signs of evolution from a common ancestor, may be vestigial organs

    • Comparative embryology

      • Pharyngeal gill slits

      • Post-anal tail

    • Molecular biology


Figure 22 16 comparison of a protein found in diverse vertebrates

Percent of Amino Acids That Are

Identical to the Amino Acids in a

Human Hemoglobin Polypeptide

Species

100%

Human

Rhesus monkey

95%

Mouse

87%

Chicken

69%

Frog

54%

14%

Lamprey

Figure 22.16 Comparison of a protein found in diverse vertebrates


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

  • What is artificial selection?

  • What is the evidence for evolution?

    • Homologous structures – similar structures with different functions show signs of evolution from a common ancestor, may be vestigial organs

    • Comparative embryology

      • Pharyngeal gill slits

      • Post-anal tail

    • Molecular biology

    • Biogeography – geographical distribution of species


Fig 22 17 different geographic regions different mammalian brands

NORTH

AMERICA

Sugar

glider

AUSTRALIA

Flying

squirrel

Fig. 22.17 Different geographic regions, different mammalian “brands”


Chapter 22 descent with modification a darwinian view of life

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life

  • What do you know about evolution?

  • What is evolution?

  • What is paleontology?

  • What was Lamarck’s view?

  • What was Darwin’s view?

  • Summarizing Darwin’s view

  • What is artificial selection?

  • What is the evidence for evolution?

    • Homologous structures

    • Comparative embryology

    • Molecular biology

    • Biogeography – geographical distribution of species

    • Fossils


Figure 22 18 a transitional fossil linking past and present

Figure 22.18 A transitional fossil linking past and present


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