Hope for the Future. Portugal - P ó v o a de Lanhoso Second meeting 13 -17 May 2013 Learning Europe : Culture & Civilization. Architecture. Colosseum (Rome).
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Portugal - Póvoa de Lanhoso
13 -17 May 2013
Culture & Civilization
The Colosseum or Coliseum, alsoknownas the FlavianAmphitheatreis an ellipticalamphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone, itwas the largestamphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and itisconsideredone of the greatestworks of Roman architecture and engineering. Itis the largestamphitheatre in the world.
Filippo Brunelleschi wasone of the foremostarchitects and engineers of the ItalianRenaissance. He isfamous for hisdiscovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, buthisaccomplishmentsalso include otherarchitecturalworks, sculpture, mathematics, engineering and evenship design. His principalsurvivingworks are to be found in Florence, Italy.
The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fioreis the mainchurch of Florence, Italy. The Duomo, asitisordinarilycalled, wasbegun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completedstructurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
Giotto’s Campanile (84,7 metres high) is a free-standing campanile that is part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence. Standing adjacent the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore and the Baptistry of St. John, the tower is one of the showpieces of the Florentine Gothic architecture with its design by Giotto, its rich sculptural decorations and the polychrome marble encrustations.
Gian Lorenzo Berniniwas an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets.
Saint Peter'sSquareis a massive plazalocateddirectly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed the squareincluding the massive Tuscancolonnades, fourcolumnsdeep, whichembracevisitors in "the maternalarms of Mother Church." A granite fountainconstructed by Bernini in 1675 matchesanotherfountaindesigned by Carlo Maderno dating to 1613.
The PatriarchalCathedral Basilica of Saint Markis the cathedralchurch of the Roman CatholicArchdiocese of Venice, northernItaly.
Itis the mostfamous of the city'schurches and one of the best knownexamples of Byzantinearchitecture. Itliesat the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco, adjacent and connected to the Doge's Palace.
The cathedral of Milan, the symbol of Milan, is dedicated to Santa Maria Rising and is located in the square in the city center.
The Piazza del Duomo ("CathedralSquare") is a wide, walled area to the north of central Pisa, Tuscany. Itisrecognizedasone of the main centers for medieval art in the world. Partlypaved and partlygrassed, itisdominated by fourgreatreligiousedifices: the Duomo (cathedral), the Campanile (the cathedral's free standing belltower), the Baptistry and the Camposanto.
Renzo Piano is an Italian architect. It is one of the best known and internationally active architects.
The Shard, also referred to as the Shard of Glass, Shard London Bridge is a 72-storey skyscraper in London. It opened to the public on 1st February 2013. Standing 309.6 metres (1,016 ft) high, the Shard is the tallest building in the European Union. Renzo Piano is the Shard's architect.
The basis of the modernItalianlanguagewasestablished by the Florentinepoet Dante Alighieri, whosegreatest work, the Divine Comedy, isconsideredamong the foremostliterarystatementsproduced in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
Other celebrated literary figures in Italy are: Giovanni Boccaccio whose greatest work is “The Decameron”. The poet Giacomo Leopardi and Alessandro Manzoni who wrote “The Betrothed”.
There are also Torquato Tasso, Ludovico Ariosto, and Petrarca, whose best-knownvehicle of expression, the sonnet, wasinvented in Italy, Luigi Pirandello with “Il fu Mattia Pascal” and Giovanni Pascoli.
Prominentphilosophers include Giordano Bruno, Marsilio Ficino, Niccolò Machiavelli, and Giambattista Vico. Modernliteraryfigures and Nobel laureates are: nationalistpoet Giosuè Carducci in 1906; realistwriter Grazia Deledda in 1926; moderntheatreauthor Luigi Pirandello in 1936; poets Salvatore Quasimodo in 1959 and Eugenio Montale in 1975; satirist and theatreauthor Dario Fo in 1997.
Over the centuries, Italian art hasgonethroughmanystylisticchanges. Italian painting istraditionallycharacterized by a warmth of colour and light, asexemplified in the works of Caravaggio and Titian, and a preoccupation with religiousfigures and motifs. Italian painting enjoyedpre-eminence in Europe for hundreds of years, from the Romanesque and Gothicperiods, and through the Renaissance and Baroqueperiods. Othernotableartistswhofallwithintheseperiods include Giotto, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Botticelli, Tintoretto and Bernini.
“Compianto sul Cristo morto”
“Madonna in maestà”
“Lo sposalizio della Vergine”
“La Madonna della seggiola”
“The birth of Venus”
“Origine della Via Lattea”
“San Rocco in Gloria”
“The Crucifixion of Saint Peter”
The Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, who, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light, shade, and colour. This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists. The most notable artists of this movement were Giovanni Fattori, Vito D’Ancona, Silvestro Lega and Telemaco Signorini.
Silvestro Lega, Ragazza di Crespina
Giovanni Fattori, Hay stack
Vito D’Ancona, Lady in White
Silvestro Lega Il Bindolo
Telemaco Signorini, Ghetto of Florence
GIOVANNI BOLDINI (1842-1931)
“La Dame de Biarritz”
“The Disquieting Muses”
From Folk to classical, music has always played an important role in the Italian culture.
Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano (Bartolomeo Cristofori), violin and organ (Girolamo Frescobaldi) were invented in Italy.
Many of prevailing classical music forms, such as symphony, concerto and sonata, can trace their roots back to innovations of the 16th and 17th century Italian music.
Giovanni Monteverdi (1567 -1643) was a composer and singer.
Monteverdi's work, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period.
He developed two individual styles of composition – the heritage of Renaissance polyphonyanand the new basso continuo technique of the Baroque.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1526 –1594)was a Renaissance
composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Italian most famous composers include the Renaissance composers Palestrina, Monteverdi
Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (1685 – 1757) was a composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families. He composed in a variety of musical forms, although today he is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas.
Arcangelo Corelli (1653 – 1713) was a composer and violinist and composer of the Baroque era.
The style of execution introduced by Corelli was of vital importance for the development of violin playing. It has been said that the paths of all of the famous violinist-composers of 18th-century Italy led to Arcangelo Corelli who was their "iconic point of reference".
The Baroque composers
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (1678 – 1741), was an Italian Baroque composer, Catholic priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice. Recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, his influence during his lifetime was widespread over Europe.
Vivaldi is known mainly for composing instrumental concertos especially for the violin, as well as sacred choral works and over forty operas. His best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons.
PAGANINI and ROSSINI
The classical composers
Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) was a composer who wrote 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces.
His best-known operas include the Italian comedies Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville) and La Cenerentola and the French-language epics Moïse et Pharaonand Guillaume Tell.
NiccolòPaganini (1782- 1840) was a composer and one of the most celebrated violin virtuosi of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His Caprice No. 24 in A minor, Op. 1, is among the best known of his compositions.
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) is considered with Richard Wagner the most influential composer of operas of the nineteenth century,and dominated the Italian scene after Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini. His works are frequently performed in opera houses throughout the world and, transcending the boundaries of the genre, some of his themes have long since taken root in popular culture, as "La donna è mobile" from Rigoletto, "Libiamo ne' lieti calici” (The Drinking Song) from La traviata, "Va, pensiero”(The Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves) from Nabucco, the "Coro di zingari" from Il trovatore and the "Grand March" from Aida.
Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)was a composer whose operas are among the most frequently performed in opera houses all over the world.
Puccini has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi”. While his early work was rooted in traditional late-19thcentury romantic Italian opera, he successfully developed his work in the 'realistic' verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. His greatest operas include: Manon Lescaut, Tosca, Madame Butterfly, La bohème, Turandot, La fanciulla del West.
Opera has been promoted by the opening of public theatres. In 1637 the first theatre in San Cassiano in Venice was opened. A new kind of music was sung and quickly spread throughout Europe.
Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of Opera which was founded in the early 17th century, in Italian cities, such as Venice and Mantua.
The opera literature of the first half of the eighteenth century was dominated by the great figure of the great Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi. His first successful opera was Nabucco in 1842 in Milan.
Operas composed by Italian composers of the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Rossini, Bellini, Doninzetti, Verdi and Puccini are performed in opera houses all over the world.
Modern Italian composers, Berio and Nono, developed experimental and electronic music.
Famous Italian opera singers include Enrico Caruso and Luciano Pavarotti.
Enrico Caruso (1873-1921)
La Scala Opera house in Milan, San Carlo Opera house in Naples and La Fenice Opera House in Venice are considered among the best theatres in the world.
From the year of its foundation is the seat of the Opera, the Choir, the Orchestra and Ballet, the Philharmonic since 1982.
Riccardo Muti is a conductor and music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Muti has been a regular guest of the Berlin Philarmonic and the Vienna Philarmonic.
Claudio Abbado has served as music director of the La Scala opera house in Milan, principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, music director of the Vienna State Opera, and principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic, orchestra from 1989 to 2002.
He has led opera performances with the Philadelphia Orchestra and productions in the principal opera houses of Rome (from 1969), Ravenna, Vienna, London (from 1977), Munich (from 1979), and, finally, in 2010, New York.
Between the 50s and the 60s the Italian popular music underwent a significant change caused by the rock influences coming from overseas, in particular with the music that was enriched with electric guitars that took the place of violins.
Lucio Battisti (1943-1998)
In the 70s new born Italian singers and songwriters with a musical personality that united that of the classical composer and one of the folk singer, produced a new type of rock. Among these the most popular singers were: Lucio Battisti and Mia Martini.
Mia Martini (1947-1995)
The 80s are essentially a decade of great innovation which passes through the electronic sound with the attempt of a link between genres such as rock and the diverse world of soul, disco and funk. In the second half of the 80s techno and house music was produced.
ITALIAN DISCO MUSIC
Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music, known for its futuristic sound and prominent usage of synthesizers and drum machines. It was one of European forms of dico music. It was called Italo Disco.
Italo disco's influences include Italian producer Giorgio Moroder and the singer Spagna.
Today , Italian pop music is represented annually with the Sanremo Music Festival, which takes place at the Ariston theatre in Sanremo. This Festival served as inspiration for the Eurovision song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto.
Today singers such as pop diva Mina, classical crossover artist Andrea Bocelli, Grammy winner Laura Pausini, European chart-topper Eros Ramazzotti, Gianna Nannini and Tiziano Ferro have attained international acclaim.
The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the Lumière brothers began motion picture exhibitions. The first Italian film was a few seconds, showing Pope Leo XIII giving a blessing to the camera.
The Italian film industry was born between 1903 and 1908 with three companies.
Films were brought to Italy by the Lumière operators during 1896.
In 1896, the first cinema theatres opened in Rome, Milan , Naples, Livorno , etc.
In Pisa cinema Lumière opened in 1899 . It closed its doors on February 13, 2011.
Cinecittà is a complex of studios of international importance located along the Tuscolana in the eastern outskirts of Rome, and active since 1937.
Cinecittà is the top Italian film industry but it is also used for foreign productions and television shows.
More than 3000 films were shot here; 90 films received an Academy Award nomination; 47 films won the prestigious statuette. Famous national and international directors have worked here: Federico Fellini , Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, Riddley Scott, etc.
Vittorio De Sica
The mid-1940s to the early 1950s was the heyday of neorealistic films, reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy
Rome, Open City (1945)
The Bicycle thief (1948)
The most famous movies include:
La dolce vita
The Good, the Bad and the ugly
Once upon a time in America
Life is beautiful
Vittorio Gassman (Riso amaro)
Totò (Miseria e nobiltà)
Anna Magnani (La rosa tatuata)
Vittorio De Sica (Miracolo a Milano)
(Un americano a Roma)
Marcello Mastroianni (Matrimonio all’italiana)
(Travolti da un insolito destino . . .)
Monica Vitti (La ragazza con la pistola)
(La vita è bella)
Raul Bova (Scusa se ti chiamo amore)
(Le fate ignoranti)
(Tre metri sopra il cielo)
(La nostra vita)