Influenza PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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2. Causal agent for Influenza Virus: genetic material wrapped in a membrane Three major groups of influenza Influenza C Influenza B Influenza A Subdivided into several subtypes (H5N1, …) Infect not only humans but also animals Mutate more rapidly Influenza C: mild disease Influenza B: sporadic outbreaks of more severe respiratory disease Influenza A: greatest concernInfluenza C: mild disease Influenza B: sporadic outbreaks of more severe respiratory disease Influenza A: greatest concern


4. Evolution of the Influenza virus The virus is in constant evolution Two types of evolution Antigenic Drift: Small errors in transcription that are not corrected Antigenic Shift Mutation Recombination

6. Different aspects of Influenza Seasonal influenza Avian influenza : animal disease Human cases of avian influenza Pandemic influenza

7. Seasonal Influenza Seasonal fluctuation of the number of cases Certain degree of immunity in the population Mortality principally in certain well defined risk groups (e.g. elderly, people with chronic diseases…) Vaccination is possible: composition needs to be adapted every season

8. Avian Influenza and human cases of AI Veterinary problem Virus H1 to H15, N1 to N9 Pathogenicity is very variable Low pathogenic AI Highly pathogenic AI Very high mortality Transmission Very contagious in animals , little or no immunity Transmission to humans is very rare ( very close contact) No transmission between humans

9. Pandemic Influenza Antigenic shift Inter human transmission No Immunity in the population New strain of the influenza virus Can infect a big proportion of the population Mortality Rate: unknown No vaccine available

10. INFLUBEL Influenza epidemic modelling and scenario analysis software Modelling of influenza epidemics Study of distribution over time of morbidity, health care utilization, and mortality Scenario analysis to study the influence of vaccination, antivirals, and social distancing measures Marc Van RanstMarc Van Ranst

11. Influbel parameters Population Basic reproduction number Seeding parameters Social interaction – Social distancing Symptomatic/asymptomatic infections Morbidity parameters GP use and hospitalisation parameters Vaccination and antiviral use parameters

13. International collaboration WHO Surveillance of human cases of avian influenza Follow up of the viral genome Composition of the seasonal flu vaccine Follow up of the phases

14. International collaboration EISS Weekly surveillance report for 29 countries Operates the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe

15. International collaboration ECDC core activities Surveillance Scientific advice Identification of emerging health threats (“epidemic intelligence”) Training Communications Providing technical assistance (“country support”)

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