The sociology and philosophy of religion
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The Sociology and Philosophy of Religion. Look to the Hills. Resources : Professor J. McBrayer – Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity ; Roy A. Rappaport Philosophy of Religion; David Elton Trueblood

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The sociology and philosophy of religion

The Sociology and Philosophy of Religion

Look to the Hills

Resources:

Professor J. McBrayer – Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO

Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity; Roy A. Rappaport

Philosophy of Religion; David Elton Trueblood

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – plato.stanford.edu/contents.html


Homework for sunday

Homework for sunday

Please….

Read!

Discuss and/or reflect on the handouts

Write down your questions


Homework due today

Homework due today

Podcast: On Being

Youtube Audio: Christopher Hutchins

Song: Spirit in the Sky

Reading: Plato – Laws

Commentary and Questions?


Homework questions

Homework Questions

  • Can you know that God exists? 

    • If you cannot, is there anyone else that can know if God exists, and who is this person or who are these people? 

    • If you can, how can you know that God exists?

  • The idea of pantheism says that God is all things. 

    • If you agree with this idea, what does it mean to say that something is God? 

    • If you disagree with this idea, please speak to the delineation between those things that are God and those things that are not God.

  • Unfortunately, for many people the word ‘God’ is loaded with imagery and, for lack of a better word, baggage. 

    • If we wanted to discuss God so that the idea of God is more neutral and less biased, what would you, instead, call God?


Definitions

Definitions

Sociology of Religion: The search for natural and rational evidence of the emergence of religion in human history.

Philosophy of Religion: The search for reasoned answers to important, non-empirical questions that arise within a religious context or as a result of religious belief.


John locke the compatibility of religion

John locke & thecompatibility of religion

  • Guiding question: Given Locke’s role in advocating rational, independent thought, what assumptions are made about religion in his, and other comparable, rights-oriented, treaties?

  • Is religion an independent endeavor?

  • Can religious truth be known?

  • Is religion a force for good? Is it a force for societal cohesion?

  • Discussion of the Faith Filter and Authority at a Distance


The sociology and philosophy of religion

Head of Christ, c. 1648-56Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, DutchOil on oak panel, laid into larger oak panel


Supper at emmaus c 1648 rembrandt harmensz van rijn dutch

Supper at emmaus, c. 1648Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Dutch


Christ and the woman taken in adultery c 1644 rembrandt harmensz van rijn dutch

Christ and the woman taken in adultery, c. 1644Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, Dutch


The road to emmaus

The Road to Emmaus

Orthodox Icon Painting/Card


Language

LANGUAGE


The abrahamic and vedic search for the divine

The Abrahamic and vedic‘search for the divine’


Relative populations of world s religions www adherents com

Relative Populations of World’s Religionswww.adherents.com

Christianity: 2.1 billion

Islam: 1.5 billion

Secular/Nonrel/Agn/Ath: 1.1 bill

Hinduism: 900 million

Chinese traditional: 394 mill

Buddhism: 376 million

primal-indigenous: 300 million

African Traditional: 100 million

Sikhism: 23 million

Juche: 19 million

Spiritism: 15 million

Judaism: 14 million

Baha'i: 7 million

Jainism: 4.2 million

Shinto: 4 million

Cao Dai: 4 million

Zoroastrianism: 2.6 million

Tenrikyo: 2 million

Neo-Paganism: 1 million

Unitarian-Universalism: 800 thous

Rastafarianism: 600 thousand

Scientology: 500 thousand


Course postulates

Course postulates

  • Primary postulates in the course:

  • Sociology and Religion

  • The emergence of language in human history allowed for the emergence of religion, and the idea of something divine

  • Far more influential than we realize, religious rituals were – and

  • continue to be – culturally defining phenomena.

  • Philosophy and Religion

  • Thoughtful, unanswerable questions (in ANY discipline) linger.

  • 2. ‘Westerners’ have cared a lot about whether or not there is a God;

  • ‘Easterners’ have not. The nature of their respective religions represents

  • this fact.


Language ritual sociology inquiry explains organized religion

Language & RitualSociology inquiry explains organized religion

  • [in contrast to the communication of other living beings]

  • Human Language can be:

  • speculative

  • dishonest

  • Human language, like humanity, has evolved in adaptive (surprising) and then intentional (predictable) ways


The sociological math of religion

The Sociological math(of Religion)

  • Speculative language becomes sanctified language

  • Sanctified language is clarified through religious ritual

  • Religious ritual, therefore, expresses speculative language

  • In this way, speculative language has the potential to become religious creed

  • (a transitive property problem!; if A begets B, and B begets C, then A begets C)


Course postulates1

Course postulates

  • Primary postulates in the course:

  • Sociology and Religion

  • The emergence of language in human history allowed for the emergence of religion, and the idea of something divine

  • Far more influential than we realize, religious rituals were – and

  • continue to be – culturally defining phenomena.

  • Philosophy and Religion

  • Thoughtful, unanswerable questions (in ANY discipline) linger.

  • 2. ‘Westerners’ have cared a lot about whether or not there is a God;

  • ‘Easterners’ have not. The nature of their respective religions represents

  • this fact.


Definitions1

Definitions

Philosophy of Religion: The search for reasoned answers to important, non-empirical questions that arise within a religious context or as a result of religious belief.


Faith relationship philosophical inquiry explains organized religion

Faith & Relationshipphilosophical inquiry explains organized religion

  • Meaning – Our Lives Matter to Us!

    • “Do you believe in a Divine Presence?” – this is a (the?) PIVOTAL question of human existence

    • Life lived in relation to Other,

    • or life lived in relation to Self?

      • Right Relationship; The Leap of Faith


The sociology and philosophy of religion

GOD

  • Forms of God

    • Polytheistic (Ancient Greek, Roman, Norse)

    • Henotheistic (Hinduism; monistic/dualistic)

    • Monotheistic (Abrahamic)

    • Nontheistic (Buddhism; Jainism)

    • Panentheism (ex. IndigAmerican; Pagan)

    • Pantheism (God IS everything; monism/tic)

    • Mysticism / Spirituality


Definitions2

Definitions

  • Monotheistic Terminology: Evidence of God

    • Deism (God the Watchmaker)

    • First Cause/Prime Mover

    • Design of existence; God the architect of order

    • Ontological Argument

    • God the Judge

    • Pascal’s Wager

  • Right Relationship: Humans ask the question, “How can I best demonstrate my compatibility with God and/or God’s plan?” or “In what way is my life compatible with the natural world and with the world of humans?”


  • Conclusion

    Conclusion

    • Living a meaningful life is a shared human endeavor (Faith Creed)

    • The search for meaning can be directed outward or inward, depending on the ‘geography’ of the divine (Relationship  God)

    • Questions to be addressed:

      • Does God exist, or is God a manifestation of the human mind and/or of human social structures?

      • Can all religions be equally true, and/or equally untrue? Does the existence of many faiths mean that there is no one true faith?


    Course postulates2

    Course postulates

    • Sociology and Religion

    • The emergence of language in human history allowed for the emergence of religion, and the idea of something divine

    • Our use of language is new worlds-creating (Language  Humanity)

    • Far more influential than we realize, religious rituals were – and

    • continue to be – culturally defining phenomena.

    • What we do tells the story of what we believe/know (Ritual  Culture)

    • Philosophy and Religion

    • Thoughtful, unanswerable questions (in ANY discipline) linger.

    • Living a meaningful life is a shared human endeavor (Faith Creed)

    • 2. ‘Westerners’ have cared a lot about whether or not there is a God;

    • ‘Easterners’ have not. The nature of their respective religions represents

    • this fact.

    • The search for meaning can be directed outward or inward, depending on the ‘geography’ of the divine (Relationship  God)


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