The Great War World War I & Its Aftermath 1914-1930. “MAIN” Causes of the War. “MAIN” Causes of WWI. M ilitarism - competition in building the biggest, most aggressive military A lliances - complex network of “backup” between European nations if one went to war
Militarism - competition in building the biggest, most aggressive military
Alliances - complex network of “backup” between European nations if one went to war
Imperialism - competition between European empires for resources, markets & colonies in Africa & Asia
Nationalism - rivalry between European nations; also certain ethnic groups want to unite & establish their own nations
Did the emperor of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm II, encourage the start of World War as a way to increase Germany’s power and dominate Europe and the world?
King George V
Czar Nicholas II
King Emmanuel III
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Emperor Franz Josef
(Prime Minister of War)
Central Powers (orange), particularly Germany, want more colonies and power overseas in Africa and Asia.
At the time, most of the world is dominated by the Allied Powers (dark green).
European nations focus on their country’s self-interests and fight to increase power.
Ethnic groups begin to fight the powerful empires to establish their own nations.
Nationalism in the Balkans 1914
The“Powder Keg”of Europe:
Various groups want their own nations, but live mixed up together.
Bosnians, Slovaks & Czechs in the Austro-Hungarian empire want their own nations.
Poles want to reclaim their homeland from Germany, Austria-Hungary & Russia.
Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Assassinated on June 28, 1914 by Serbian radicals who believed that Bosnia belonged to Serbia rather than Austria-Hungary.
Austria-Hungary accuses Serbia of plotting the assassination and threatens to go to war.
The most direct, or immediate, cause of World War I
The German army bulldozes through neutral Belgium to attack France and threaten Britain across the waters.
Atrocities committed against the neutral country cause many Americans to see Germany as an aggressor nation that should be stopped.
Although Germans seem aggressive, many Americans want to stay isolated from the war in Europe.
Peace activists work to keep America neutral.
Immigrant families have ties to both sides in Europe.
Wilson’s 1916 slogan: “He kept us out of war!”
Voted against war
Under the leadership of Woodrow Wilson, most Americans want to stay out of the fighting in Europe.
Let Europe solve its own problems.
Businesses do not want to upset trade and investments around the world.
Supplying materials to both the Allied and Central Powers created a boost for the US economy.
Britain blocks US ships to Germany and confiscates materials onboard as contraband. Owners of the goods onboard lose money.
Germany uses new U-boats to blow up US ships headed to Britain. Lives and money are lost.
The loss of lives adds to the public opinion that murderous Germany is responsible for the war.
U-boat hits before April 1917
U-boat hits after April 1917
The Sinking of the Lusitania
A British cruise liner carrying war materials and American passengers is torpedoed by the Germans. Twelve hundred people die, including 128 Americans.
The Zimmermann Telegram
The Kaiser tries to make a deal with Mexico.
The Zimmermann Telegram
IMPORTANT: Why did America join the fighting in World War I?
Although the Zimmermann note gave the President and Congress the public support to declare war, the REASON for the US to go to war was to protect its trade and shipping rights on the high seas. Germany’s use of unrestricted submarine warfare was taking lives and interfering with the American economy.
Wilson makes an idealistic case for war: the US should“Make the world safe for democracy”
Congress passes the Selective Service Act to draft soldiers into the army
Wilson chooses General John J. Pershing to train and lead the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
US “Doughboys” Go To War
Citizens - Work Hard & Buy War Bonds
US warships escort supply ships
In March of 1917, the Russian Revolution overthrew the czar and established a republic.
By November, the communist Bolshevik party took over the government and signed a peace treaty with Germany to end the fighting on the Eastern Front.
German forces were now freed up to fight the war-weary Allied Forces on the Western Front.
German forces leave Russia and head to the Western Front, where worn-out British and French soldiers are starting to give up hope.
New military technology: machine guns, hand grenades, mustard gas, flame throwers
Both sides dug into miles of trenches on the Western Front between France and Germany.
Soldiers lived under constant fire for years in the wet, dirty, rat-infested trenches with a “no man’s land” between the two sides.
Heavy losses continued as the stalemate dragged on.
In the Trenches
“Those Who Have Lost Their Names”Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
Soldiers now fought inside machines instead of on horseback.
“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Women began working in factories to produce supplies. After the war, they would push harder for the right to vote.
Manfred von Richtofen
“The Red Baron”
Originally designed as a bomber, the zeppelin proved to be too slow and flammable to do much damage.
“Paths of Glory”C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
“Gassed and Wounded”Eric Kennington, 1918
With nine million dead and over thirty-six million casualties, many will ask the question, “What was it all for?”
The Somme American Cemetary, France civilian.
116,516 Americans Died in WWI
1918 Flu Pandemic civilian.
20,000,000 – 100,000,000 died?
Who’s To Blame? civilian.
Leaders of the Allied Powers meet at the Palace of Versailles in France to negotiate the terms of a peace agreement with Germany and Austria-Hungary.
King Louis XIV’s “Hall of Mirrors”
“The Big Four”
What do they want?
War Guilt Clause - The treaty should say that Germany is responsible for starting the war
Reparations - Germany should have to pay billions in damages
Security - Germany should have to disarm its military and set up a demilitarized zone on its border with France
Borders - Land divided up to weaken Germany and dissolve Austria-Hungary
David Lloyd George
What did they want?
The least powerful of the “Big Four” Allied Powers, Italy joined the peace negotiations to get back land that had been taken by Austria-Hungary.
Italy felt humiliated about being ignored at Versailles, and this would contribute to resentment leading up to WWII.
What did they want?
Open diplomacy - no secret deals between nations to help each other take over the world
Freedom of the seas in peace & war
Reduce arms & militaries
Self-determination - ethnic groups that want independence should have their own nations
Nations should cooperate & respect each other’s territory
League of Nations - a place to settle disputes without going to war
The League of Nations was the only one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points to make it into the Treaty of Versailles. Britain and France could not go home to their publics with an idealistic treaty that let Germany off the hook.
Ironically, the US did not join the League of Nations. Senators such as Henry Cabot Lodge felt that it would bind the US into alliances and drag it into another war.
Isolationism returned in a big way among the American public. The Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and join the League of Nations.
Although the US did not want to become involved in international affairs after World War I, the nation did engage in two important agreements:
Wilson established the War Industries Board, led by Bernard Baruch, to control the national economy and make sure enough supplies were produced.
Wilson appointed Herbert Hoover to head the Food Administration to conserve food for the soldiers. Americans participated in “Meatless Mondays” and “Wheatless Wednesdays” and grew “Victory Gardens.”
George Creel, head of the Committee on Public Information, used all types of propaganda to encourage public support for the war - movies, posters, parades, songs.
Congress passed the Espionage and Sedition Acts to make it illegal to speak out against the government or interfere with the draft.
The success of the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution scared many Americans, who feared that revolution would spread to the US.
As workers began to strike again after the war, some Americans became convinced that unions were being encouraged by the Communists.
Socialist Party leader Eugene V. Debs - previously a candidate for president - was sentenced to ten years in prison for criticizing the government’s war efforts.
From jail, Debs ran for president again in 1920, gaining almost one million votes.
In Schenck v. US (1919) the Supreme Court ruled that the government could silence free speech when there is a “clear and present danger” involved.
US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer authorized the Palmer Raids to round up suspected communists and “subversives.” Over 500 immigrants were deported.
The fear of immigrants spreading communism and anarchy led to one of the nation’s most controversial trials.
Sacco and Vanzetti were two Italian immigrants believed to be anarchists. Although the evidence was questionable, the two men were convicted of murder and executed.
Were Sacco and Vanzetti convicted based on political or ethnic prejudice?