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1. 1 The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal survey Chaoyang University of Technology Professor D.J. Visser, Ph.D.
Professor of Management
School of Business and Finance
University of the Western Cape
2. 2 Introduction Entrepreneurship education at university
Lack of employment opportunities
Introduction of course at 2nd year level
3. 3 Literature review on entrepreneurship education Laukannen (2000)
Education about entrepreneurship
Education for entrepreneurship
Developing cores skills & attributes
Entrepreneurship can be taught (Timmons & Spinelli, 2004)
Education can enhance entrepreneurial skills, competencies, attitudes (Davies, 2001)
4. 4 Hytti?s Model of Entrepreneurship Education
5. 5 Measuring entrepreneurship at tertiary level Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation scale (validated by Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner & Hunt, 1991)
Specifically designed to measure ?attitude?
Successfully discriminates between entrepreneurs & non-entrepreneurs
Achievement in Business (ACH)
Innovation in Business (INN)
Personal Control (PC)
All 4 subscales validated for South Africa (Van Wyk, Boshoff and Owen, 1999)
6. 6 Hypotheses H1: Achievement orientation improves after having attended the training module
H2: Personal control improves after having attended the training module
H3: Innovation improves after having attended the training module
H4: Self-esteem improves after having attended the training module
7. 7 Academic programme for entrepreneurship at second year level Term 1: Starting a business (Theory)
Entrepreneurship as a career choice, theory on starting and running an enterprise
Term 2: Starting a business (Practice)
Group involvement, forming micro-enterprise teams
Term 3: Operating the small business (Practice)
Running enterprises, experiencing success factors
Term 4: Harvesting the enterprise (Practice)
Group dynamics, conflict resolution
8. 8 Assessment methods Weekly journals
Student peer evaluation
Interview/interaction with entrepreneurs
Group business plan
Group enterprise progress reports
Final group report
9. 9 Research method: Longitudinal survey Design of study
Experimental group and Control group subjected to same tests
13. 13 Confirming the hypotheses (1) H1: Achievement orientation improves after having attended the training module.
The training had a significant positive effect on Achievement. The trained students showed a significantly higher score in the post training measure than the control group
H2: Personal control improves after having attended the training module.
Hypothesis 2 could not be confirmed. Students with a high score of external control believe that the situation is mainly determined by external forces.
14. 14 H3: Innovation improves after having attended the training module
The results show that students increased their innovation score significantly between T1 and T2 as well as in comparison to a control group
H4: Self-esteem improves after having attended the training module.
At the end of the academic year the self-esteem of the training group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Confirming the hypotheses (2)
16. 16 Conclusions Changing the mindsets of students by offering self-employment (i.e. entrepreneurship) as a viable alternative to becoming a job-seeker;
Presenting students with the necessary business skills to start and run an enterprise;
Facilitating and further enhancing experiential learning by running and managing their own enterprises on campus;
Subjecting students to real-life examples of the typical problems, needs and constraints entrepreneurs face; and,
Developing role models based on the successful examples of similar student enterprises from previous years.
17. 17 Recommendations Future training: ?hands-on?
Length of training courses
Longer training time period impacts positively on the outcome
Replication at other tertiary institutions