The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal survey Chaoyang University o
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2. Introduction. Entrepreneurship education at universityLack of employment opportunitiesIntroduction of course at 2nd year level. Purpose of this paper. Design of an innovative modulePractical implementationAssessing efficacy by means of longitudinal survey. 3. Literature review on entrepreneur
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1. 1 The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal survey Chaoyang University of Technology Professor D.J. Visser, Ph.D. Professor of Management School of Business and Finance University of the Western Cape Bellville South Africa

2. 2 Introduction Entrepreneurship education at university Lack of employment opportunities Introduction of course at 2nd year level

3. 3 Literature review on entrepreneurship education Laukannen (2000) Education about entrepreneurship Education for entrepreneurship Mason (2000) Developing cores skills & attributes Literature supports: Entrepreneurship can be taught (Timmons & Spinelli, 2004) Education can enhance entrepreneurial skills, competencies, attitudes (Davies, 2001)

4. 4 Hytti?s Model of Entrepreneurship Education

5. 5 Measuring entrepreneurship at tertiary level Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation scale (validated by Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner & Hunt, 1991) Specifically designed to measure ?attitude? Successfully discriminates between entrepreneurs & non-entrepreneurs EAO subscales: Achievement in Business (ACH) Innovation in Business (INN) Personal Control (PC) Self-esteem (SE) All 4 subscales validated for South Africa (Van Wyk, Boshoff and Owen, 1999)

6. 6 Hypotheses H1: Achievement orientation improves after having attended the training module H2: Personal control improves after having attended the training module H3: Innovation improves after having attended the training module H4: Self-esteem improves after having attended the training module

7. 7 Academic programme for entrepreneurship at second year level Term 1: Starting a business (Theory) Entrepreneurship as a career choice, theory on starting and running an enterprise Term 2: Starting a business (Practice) Group involvement, forming micro-enterprise teams Term 3: Operating the small business (Practice) Running enterprises, experiencing success factors Term 4: Harvesting the enterprise (Practice) Group dynamics, conflict resolution

8. 8 Assessment methods Weekly journals Student peer evaluation Interview/interaction with entrepreneurs Group business plan Action training Group enterprise progress reports Case studies Term tests Final group report Examination

9. 9 Research method: Longitudinal survey Design of study T1: Pre-test T2: Post-test Experimental group and Control group subjected to same tests

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13. 13 Confirming the hypotheses (1) H1: Achievement orientation improves after having attended the training module. The training had a significant positive effect on Achievement. The trained students showed a significantly higher score in the post training measure than the control group H2: Personal control improves after having attended the training module. Hypothesis 2 could not be confirmed. Students with a high score of external control believe that the situation is mainly determined by external forces.

14. 14 H3: Innovation improves after having attended the training module The results show that students increased their innovation score significantly between T1 and T2 as well as in comparison to a control group H4: Self-esteem improves after having attended the training module. At the end of the academic year the self-esteem of the training group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Confirming the hypotheses (2)

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16. 16 Conclusions Changing the mindsets of students by offering self-employment (i.e. entrepreneurship) as a viable alternative to becoming a job-seeker; Presenting students with the necessary business skills to start and run an enterprise; Facilitating and further enhancing experiential learning by running and managing their own enterprises on campus; Subjecting students to real-life examples of the typical problems, needs and constraints entrepreneurs face; and, Developing role models based on the successful examples of similar student enterprises from previous years.

17. 17 Recommendations Future training: ?hands-on? Length of training courses Longer training time period impacts positively on the outcome Replication at other tertiary institutions


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