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The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal survey Chaoyang University of Technology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal survey Chaoyang University of Technology. Professor D.J. Visser, Ph.D. Professor of Management School of Business and Finance University of the Western Cape Bellville South Africa. Introduction. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal survey Chaoyang University of Technology

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The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university evidence from a longitudinal survey chaoyang university o

The challenges of entrepreneurship education at university: Evidence from a longitudinal surveyChaoyang University of Technology

Professor D.J. Visser, Ph.D.

Professor of Management

School of Business and Finance

University of the Western Cape

Bellville

South Africa


Introduction

Introduction

  • Entrepreneurship education at university

    • Lack of employment opportunities

    • Introduction of course at 2nd year level

Purpose of this paper

  • Design of an innovative module

  • Practical implementation

  • Assessing efficacy by means of longitudinal survey


Literature review on entrepreneurship education

Literature review on entrepreneurship education

  • Laukannen (2000)

    • Education about entrepreneurship

    • Education for entrepreneurship

  • Mason (2000)

    • Developing cores skills & attributes

  • Literature supports:

    • Entrepreneurship can be taught (Timmons & Spinelli, 2004)

    • Education can enhance entrepreneurial skills, competencies, attitudes (Davies, 2001)


Hytti s model of entrepreneurship education

Hytti’s Model of Entrepreneurship Education

  • Learn to understand entrepreneurship

  • Learn to become more entrepreneurial

  • Learn to become an entrepreneur

  • What do entrepreneurs do?

  • What is entrepreneurship?

  • Why are entrepreneurs needed?

  • How many entrepreneurs do we have?

  • I need to take responsibility of my learning, career and life

  • How do I take responsibility?

  • Can I become an entrepreneur?

  • How to become an entrepreneur?

  • How to manage the business?


Measuring entrepreneurship at tertiary level

Measuring entrepreneurship at tertiary level

  • Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation scale (validated by Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner & Hunt, 1991)

  • Specifically designed to measure “attitude”

  • Successfully discriminates between entrepreneurs & non-entrepreneurs

  • EAO subscales:

    • Achievement in Business (ACH)

    • Innovation in Business (INN)

    • Personal Control (PC)

    • Self-esteem (SE)

  • All 4 subscales validated for South Africa (Van Wyk, Boshoff and Owen, 1999)


Hypotheses

Hypotheses

  • H1:Achievement orientation improves after having attended the training module

  • H2:Personal control improves after having attended the training module

  • H3:Innovation improves after having attended the training module

  • H4:Self-esteem improves after having attended the training module


Academic programme for entrepreneurship at second year level

Academic programme for entrepreneurship at second year level

  • Term 1: Starting a business (Theory)

    • Entrepreneurship as a career choice, theory on starting and running an enterprise

  • Term 2: Starting a business (Practice)

    • Group involvement, forming micro-enterprise teams

  • Term 3: Operating the small business (Practice)

    • Running enterprises, experiencing success factors

  • Term 4: Harvesting the enterprise (Practice)

    • Group dynamics, conflict resolution


Assessment methods

Assessment methods

  • Weekly journals

  • Student peer evaluation

  • Interview/interaction with entrepreneurs

  • Group business plan

  • Action training

  • Group enterprise progress reports

  • Case studies

  • Term tests

  • Final group report

  • Examination


Research method longitudinal survey

Research method: Longitudinal survey

  • Design of study

    • T1: Pre-test

    • T2: Post-test

  • Experimental group and Control group subjected to same tests


Confirming the hypotheses 1

Confirming the hypotheses (1)

  • H1:Achievement orientation improves after having attended the training module.

    • The training had a significant positive effect on Achievement. The trained students showed a significantly higher score in the post training measure than the control group

  • H2:Personal control improves after having attended the training module.

    • Hypothesis 2 could not be confirmed. Students with a high score of external control believe that the situation is mainly determined by external forces.


Confirming the hypotheses 2

Confirming the hypotheses (2)

  • H3:Innovation improves after having attended the training module

    • The results show that students increased their innovation score significantly between T1 and T2 as well as in comparison to a control group

  • H4:Self-esteem improves after having attended the training module.

    • At the end of the academic year the self-esteem of the training group was significantly higher than that of the control group.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Changing the mindsets of students by offering self-employment (i.e. entrepreneurship) as a viable alternative to becoming a job-seeker;

  • Presenting students with the necessary business skills to start and run an enterprise;

  • Facilitating and further enhancing experiential learning by running and managing their own enterprises on campus;

  • Subjecting students to real-life examples of the typical problems, needs and constraints entrepreneurs face; and,

  • Developing role models based on the successful examples of similar student enterprises from previous years.


Recommendations

Recommendations

  • Future training: “hands-on”

  • Length of training courses

  • Longer training time period impacts positively on the outcome

  • Replication at other tertiary institutions